AP World History Chapter 6x

Download Report

Transcript AP World History Chapter 6x

AP World History
Chapter 6
The First Global Civilization
The Rise and Spread of Islam
Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World
• Bedouins
– Camel herding
• Clan Identity, Clan Rivalries, and the Cycle of Vengeance
– Grouped into tribes
– Shayks, Elder or Leader of Clan.
– Free warriors
– Rivalry
• Towns and Long-Distance Trade
– Entrepot, stop off site to sell goods that will then be taken somewhere
else for trade.
• Mecca
– Umayyad clan, clan from Mecca that led after Muhammad's death.
– Quraysh tribe, controlled Mecca when Muhammad appeared they
fought for control of the city.
– Ka’ba
• Medina
Desert and Town: The Pre-Islamic Arabian World
• Marriage and Family in Pre-Islamic Arabia
– Women have important roles
– Polygyny
• Poet and Neglected Gods
– Animism, polytheism
– Allah creator-god, possibly the supreme deity.
– Allah Arabic for God today.
The Life of Muhammad and the
Genesis of Islam
• Banu Hasim clan
• Orphaned
• Mecca
– Holy Merchant City.
– Housed the Polytheistic Gods of the Bedouins.
• Khadija
– Wife and Merchant
• Revelations, 610
– via Gabriel
Islam Third of the Abrahamic Faiths
• Persecution, Flight, and Victory
– Ka’ba gods threatened
– Invited to Medina, 622
– Hijra, Calendar year 1
– Return to Mecca, 629
• Arabs and Islam
– Ummah, community of Islam
• 5 Pillars in Islam
– Acceptance of Islam
– Prayer
– Fasting during Ramadan
– Payment of zakat
– Hajj
Islam is ...
Islam is a monotheistic religion
begun by Muhammad around
600 CE in Arabia. The word
means “surrender”...to the will of
god. Islam united Arab tribes,
and was the basis for an empire
from Spain to India.
Weaknesses of the Adversary Empires
The Arab Empire of the Umayyads
• Death, 632
• Succession struggle
A.Consolidation and Division in the Islamic Community
• Abu Bakr
• Ridda Wars
B. Motives for Arab Conquest
• Conversion
• Booty
C. Weaknesses of the Adversary Empires
• Sassanian Empire
• Zoroastrianism
• Dynasty ended, 651
• Byzantium
The Arab Empire of the Umayyads
D. The Problem of Succession and the Sunni-Shi’a Split
• Uthman
• 3rd caliph
• Murdered
• Rejected by Umayyads
• Siffin, 657
• Loses suppor
• Assassinated, 661
• Son, Hasan, renounces caliphate
• Son, Husayn
• Killed, Karbala, 680
Sunni – Umayyads
Shi’a – Ali’s descendants
Caliph, 660
The Arab Empire of the Umayyads
E. The Umayyad Imperium
• Push west
• Stopped at Poitiers, 732
• Retain Iberia
F. Converts and “People of the Book”
• Malawi, converts
• Dhimmi, people of the book
• Jews, Christians
• Later, Zoroastrians and Hindus
G. Family and Gender Roles in the Umayyad AgeIslamic ideas prevail at first
H. Umayyad Decline and Fall
• Revolts
• Merv
• Abassid revolt
• 750, Umayyads defeated by Abassids
The Abassid Era
From Arab to Islamic Empire: The Early Abassid Era
• Sunni rule
• repress Shi’a
• New capital
A. Islamic Conversion and Mawali Acceptance
B. Town and Country: Commercial Boom and Agrarian Expansion
• Urban expansion
• Ayan
C. The First Flowering of Islamic Learning
• Building
• Mosques, palaces