The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700

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Transcript The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700

The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700

Puritan Origins: The English Reformation

• Reformation refresher • Henry VIII uses the Reformation for political (and personal) means. England breaks with the Catholic Church • King is the supreme head of church, church lands seized • English (Angelican) church keeps most practices of Catholicism • Others (Puritans) wanted a full reforming of the church. Wanted to eliminate rituals and focus on the individual • Persecution of Puritans in England

Puritans and the Settlement of New England

• The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony - want to build a orderly Puritan version of England - First Holland (to much vice) then onto America Plymouth Video

English Migration, 1610-1660

The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony

• • Puritans obtain a Royal charter for most of Northeast of America - special provision: gov’t could be located in the colony instead of England • John Winthrop elected Governor and settled in Boston - “City Upon a Hill” sermon given Native Americans- initially few around because of epidemics; relations will break down

The Early Years of Massachusetts Bay Colony

• Disease spread quickly and killed many. Starvation also an issue • Settlers kept arriving; especially when Church of England cracks down on Puritan ministers in England • Immigrants came from all parts of society and unlike Chesapeake many women/children

The Evolution of New England Society

Church, Covenant, and Conformity

• • • • • Puritans influenced by John Calvin - strict discipline in behavior, & predestination All town residents must attend church services Everyone kept an eye on everyone else; trying to prove saintliness Sabbath day taken seriously- fines issued for flute playing or visiting neighbors Banned practices: Christmas, Easter, cards, dice, any games of chance, music, dance

Government by Puritans for Puritanism

• • Transformed the joint stock company into a colonial gov’t Freemen had voting rights on some issues & gov’t position - Freemen= male church members - “Contrary minded” men forced out

Splintering of Puritanism

• How long did you think it would last?

• Different visions of Godliness; every town/church had different rules • Roger Williams speaks out against the intolerance; leaves and sets up Providence, Rhode Island • Anne Hutchinson vs. John Winthrop- Covenant of Grace vs. Covenant of Works • More divisions and subdivisions of churches

Economic Changes

• Back in England: Cromwell and the Puritan Republic (1649-1660) - Effect: Immigration/trade to New England dwindles, prices skyrocket • • Economy of New England - No cash crops, rocky soil, and short growing season - Trade with Natives (for food and pelts) - Trade with Europe (fish, pelts, timber) Population/Demographics: Continued to grow because of a high birth rate (8-9 children the norm)

Religious Issues

• Decedents of the first settlers felt saintliness was inherited • 2 nd & 3 rd generations not as pious. Creation of Halfway Covenant church members.

• Quakers (society of friends) arrive in New England. Different beliefs.

- God speaks directly to everyone; do not need preachers or Bibles • - Refuse to conform to laws and government, Sabbath - As you can imagine there is conflict between the Quakers and Puritans. (See page 121) Salem Witch Trials- 100 accused of witchcraft, 19 executed

The Founding of the Middle Colonies- last 1/3 of 1600s

• From New Netherland to New York - Dutch West India Company purchases Manhattan for goods worth 12 beaver pelts from local Natives. - New Amsterdam - Low population (although highly diverse) and low profits - Monarchy restored in England. Duke of York is given New Netherland as a land grant; sent warships and kicked out the Dutch - Early Governors struggle with controlling the colony because of its’ diversity

Colonies in Eastern North America 1650

New Jersey and Pennsylvania

• Duke of York subdivides his land grant • Quarrels between officials. William Penn steps in.(Quaker and prominent individual from a military/political family) – Jersey stays a propriety colony (focused on trade) – Penn given a land grant for a Quaker colony (Pennsylvania); given to rid England of Quakers

Middle Colonies, 1685

Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania

• •

The Colonies and the British Empire

• Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade - Monarchy consolidates proprietary grants into Royal colonies - Policies designed to increase revenues for the Monarchy and English merchants/shippers 1663 Staple Act: All goods imported into colonies must pass throw English ports Overall the Monarchy was establish a highly regulatory trading system

Relations with Native Americans and King Philip’s War

• Massachusetts settlers massacre Pequot’s 1637 • 1670s warfare erupts in both New England & Chesapeake (Bacon) In New England - Steady encroachment on Native land - Wampanoags struck back; Chief is Metacomet/King Philip (settlers name for him) - Counterattacks and thousands are killed. - Colonists gain upper hand and defeated the Wampanoags with a scorched-earth policy. (see map on the next page) Aftermath: Hatred of Natives, large war debt, devastated frontier and…

King Philip’s War,

1675 – 1676)

Monarchy takes control of New England

• Aftermath Continued: - King’s agents found laws were not abided - Monarchy incorporates Massachusetts and other colonies - Puritans really mad (especially when Catholics were appointed gov’t positions) • Chaos in both England and New England - Protestants seize control again in England - Uprisings in New England World) - French from Canada began attacking New England. (would lead to several wars in the 1700s that are fought both in Europe and the New

Spread of Settlement: British Colonies, 1650