DDM Webinar Part 6: Determining How to Integrate Assessments
Transcript DDM Webinar Part 6: Determining How to Integrate Assessments
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• Webinar Series Part 6 PowerPoint slides
• Correlation Example Excel file
Determining How to
Integrate Assessments into
Developing Business Rules
and Engaging Staff
Webinar Series Part 6
Introduction: District-Determined Measures and
Basics of Assessment
TA and Networking Session I
Determining the Best Approach to DistrictDetermined Measures
Measuring Student Growth and Piloting DistrictDetermined Measures
TA and Networking Session II
Integrating Assessments into Educator
Evaluation: Developing Business Rules and
TA and Networking Session III
Audience & Purpose
District teams that will be engaged in the work of
identifying, selecting, and piloting DistrictDetermined Measures.
After today participants will understand:
Examples of practical solutions to issues of fairness
in using District-Determined Measures (DDMs).
Practical examples of engaging educators in the
process of implementing DDMs.
Student Impact Rating Rollout Reminder
Ensuring Sufficient Variability
Q&A and Next Steps
Student Impact Rating Rollout:
Decide which DDMs to pilot and submit list to ESE.
Sept. 2013 –
Pilot DDMs in at least the five required areas and research
DDMs in additional areas.
Submit final plans, including any extension requests, for
implementing DDMs during the 2014-15 school year*.
Implement DDMs and collect Year 1 Student Impact
Rating data for all educators (with the exception of
educators who teach the particular grades/subjects or
courses for which an extension has been granted).
Implement DDMs, collect Year 2 Student Impact Rating,
and determine and report Student Impact Ratings for all
educators (with the exception of educators who teach the
particular grades/subjects or courses for which a district
has received an extension).
*ESE will release the June 2014 submission template and DDM implementation
extension request form in December 2013.
DDM Key Questions
Is the measure aligned to content?
Does it assess what the educators intend to teach
and what’s most important for students to learn?
Is the measure informative?
Do the results tell educators whether students are
making the desired progress, falling short, or
Do the results provide valuable information to
schools and districts about their educators?
Refining your Pilot DDMs
Districts will employ a variety of approaches to identify
pilot DDMs (e.g., build, borrow, buy).
1. How well does the assessment measure growth?
2. Is there a common administration protocol?
3. Is there a common scoring process?
4. How do results correspond to low, moderate, of
5. Is the assessment comparable to other
Use the DDM Key Questions and these considerations
to strengthen your assessments during the pilot year.
DDM Comparability: Two Types
DDMs must be “comparable across
schools, grades, and subject matter
district-wide.” (Per 603 CMR 35.09(2)a)
Comparability = Two types
(Type 1) Comparable across schools
(Type 2) Comparable across grades and
Learn more in Technical Guide B, page 9
and appendix G
Comparability (Type 1)
Comparable across schools
Example: Teachers with the same job (e.g., all 5th
Where possible, measures are identical
Easier to compare identical measures
Do identical measures provide meaningful information
about all students?
When might they not be identical?
Different content (different sections of Algebra I)
Differences in untested skills (reading and writing on math
test for ELL students)
Other accommodations (fewer questions to students who
need more time)
Error and Bias
Error is the difference between true ability and a
Student sleeps poorly, lucky guess, … etc
Systematic error (bias)
Error occurs for one type or group of students
ELL student misreads a set of questions
Systematic Error = Bias
Why This matters?
Error (OK) decreases with longer/additional measures
Bias (BAD) does not decrease with longer/additional measures
Even with identical DDM, bias threatens comparability
When does bias occur?
Situation: Students who score high on the pretest have less of an opportunity to grow
because they cannot get more than a top
score (Ceiling Effect).
Situation: Special education students gain
fewer points from pre-post test, and as a
result are less likely to be labeled as having
Checking for Bias
Do all students have an equal chance to grow?
Is there a relationship between the initial score and
We can do this in EXCEL using correlation
Correlation formula in Excel:
=CORREL(PRE-TEST SCORES, GAIN SCORES)
Type “=correl”, click formula
Highlight Pre-Test Scores, Press “Comma”
Highlight Difference Scores, Close Parentheses, Press “Enter”
Correlation is the degree to which two numbers are
Number between -1 and 1.
A zero correlation means numbers are unrelated
Closer to 1 or -1 means strong correlation
DDMs should provide all students an opportunity to
We want to see little to no correlation between pre-test
scores and gain scores
A correlation above .3 or below -.3 suggests that there are
systematic differences in gain for low and high ability students
Demonstration of computing Correlation
between pre-test and gain
Very Low Correlation
students of all ability were equally likely to
Students of high ability systematically
demonstrated less growth (due to ceiling effect)
Students with lower scores generally grew less
Strong correlation is an indication of a problem
A low correlation is not a guarantee of no bias!
Strong effect in small sub-population
Counteracting effects at both low and high end
Use common sense
Always look at a graph!
Create a scatter-plot graph and look for patterns
Example of Bias at Teacher Level
Even though similar students gained the same amount
Teacher A’s average gain is 2
Teacher B’s average gain is 5
Grouping allows teachers to be compared
based on similar students, even when the
number of those students is different
Addressing Bias: Grouping
How many groups?
What bias are you addressing?
Enough students in each group?
Rule based (all groups must be above cut off)
Comparability (Type 2)
Comparability across different DDMs
Across different grades and subject matter
Are different DDMs held to the same standard of
Does not require identical number of students
in each of the three groups of low, moderate,
Common sense judgment of fairness
One option: Standardization
Standardization is a process of putting
different measures on the same scale
Most cars cost $25,000 give or take $5,000
Most apples costs $1.50 give or take $.50
Getting a $5000 discount on a car is about equal to what
discount on an apple?
“Most are” = mean
“Give or take” = standard deviation
Jamie LaBillois –
Executive Director of Instruction,
Norwell Public Schools
Developing Local Norms
We learned early on that we needed a process
that would create one universal measurement
unit to discuss student progress.
Transform the Data…
Calculated the difference between Post
and Pre (or any approach from Technical
Find the mean (average) of the difference
Find the standard deviation of the
Now, we’re ready to “transform” the difference
scores into a universal measurement system.
Calculate the z-score of each individual
(observation – Mean)
Z = -----------------------------------Standard Deviation
Calculate percentile rank for each z-score
Developing Local Norms
Examining an Educator’s Impact
Grade 4 DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency
MEDIAN %ile per class:
Growth vs. Achievement
Re-Assessment of Instruction
Re-Assessment of Ability vs. Disability
Development of Building-Based Evaluators
Educator Engagement is Essential
Ensuring Sufficient Variability
Technical Guide B’s two key questions:
Is DDM aligned to content?
Does the DDM provide information to educators
Lack of variability reduces information
Looking for Variability
# of students
# of students
The second graph is problematic because it doesn’t give us
information about the difference between average and high
growth because so many students fall into the “high” growth
Experience with constructing measures with
Today, we discussed three strategies for
evaluating the fairness of your DDMs
1. Check for bias by computing the correlation
between pre-test scores and gain scores.
Remember: Zero correlation indicates that all students have
an equal chance to demonstrate growth.
2. Standardization can help you compare DDMs in
different content areas.
3. Look for variability in student growth. A lack of
variability reduces the amount of information
available to educators about their students.
Available Now at http://www.doe.mass.edu/edeval/ddm/:
Technical Guide B
DDMs and Assessment Literacy Webinar Series
Technical Assistance and Networking Sessions
Core Course Objectives and Example DDMs
Using Current Assessments Guidance (Curriculum
Model Contract Language
DDM Pilot Plan Cohorts
Webinar Series Part 7
Part 7: Communicating Results
Date: December 5th, 2013
Time: 4-5pm EST (60 minutes)
Craig Waterman at [email protected]
Ron Noble at [email protected]
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