Chapter 6: Food Safety & Sanitation

download report

Transcript Chapter 6: Food Safety & Sanitation

Chapter 6: Food Safety &
Preventing Food Bourne
Key Terms
Preventing Foodborne Illness
• There are three main ways to prevent foodborne
– Personal Hygiene
• Consists of the actions a person takes to keep his or her
body and clothing clean and to remove pathogens
– Sanitation
• Consists of the actions taken to prevent and control disease
– Proper Food Handling
• Cleaning is the physical removal of dirt and food from
• Sanitizing is the treatment of a clean surface with chemicals
or heat to reduce the number of disease-causing
microorganisms to safe levels
Employee Practices
• One of the most common sources of food contamination is
the hospitality employee.
• Employee practices that prevent foodborne illness are
generally called personal hygiene.
•Good personal hygiene include:
Stay home when sick
Keep fingernails short
Wash hands properly
Wash hands frequently
Bathe daily
Wear clean clothing
Do not wear jewelry
Keep hair restrained
Control sweat
Use gloves when directed
Use sanitary serving
Stay Home When Sick
• Food service employees should never be on duty
when they have diseases that can be transmitted
through direct contact with food or other persons
• Employees who show signs of illness should be
reassigned or sent home
• Signs of illness include:
Oozing burns and cuts
Keep Fingernails Short
• Fingernails should be:
– Trimmed
– Filed
– Maintained
• This ensures that hand washing will effectively
remove soil and bacteria from under and
around them.
Wash Hands Properly
• Hands easily pick up contaminants, such as
bacteria from unclean surfaces, chemicals
from cleaning products, or bacteria from the
nose or mouth
• There should be hand washing stations which
– Hot water
– Cold water
– Soap or detergent
Wash Hands Properly
• Proper hand washing includes;
– Vigorously rub surfaces of hands for 20 seconds
– Clean under fingernails using a brush
– Dry hands with a single paper towel
Wash Hands Frequently
• Hands should be washed whenever you touch
an unclean surface
• Hands should be washed:
– After using the restroom
– Sneezing
– Nose blowing
– Wiping away sweat
– Touching hair
– Working with raw foods
– Touching dirty surfaces
Bathe Daily
• Personal cleanliness is important
• Lack of personal cleanliness can;
– Offend customers
– Cause illnesses
– Contaminate food or food surfaces
Wear Clean Clothing
• Employees should always wear clean work
• Dirty clothing presents two problems:
– Odor
– Contamination by bacteria
• Dirt can enter the business on an employee’s
shoes or clothing
• Ordinary dirt contains many microorganisms
from sewage, fertilizer, or street dirt
Do Not Wear Jewelry
• Jewelry should never be worn during food
production or dishwashing
• The following items can collect dirt and cause
foodborne illness:
– Rings
– Watches
– Bracelets
– Necklaces
– Earrings
Keep Hair Restricted
• Caps, nets, or other hair restraints should be
worn to prevent hair from falling into food
• Hair should be kept clean
• Dirty hair harbors pathogens and
Control Sweat
• Another common source of contamination is
• Food handlers should be careful not to drip
sweat onto equipment or into food products
• A food contact surface is a surface that comes
in contact with food.
Use Gloves When Directed
• Many foodservice operations require the
wearing of disposable gloves during food
preparation or service
• Bare hands can harbor bacteria
• Gloves should be changed after every possible
• Hands must be washed before gloves are put
Use Sanitary Serving Methods
• All tableware and serving utensils must be
handled in a sanitary way
• Do not touch the eating surfaces of tableware
when setting tables or when handling and
storing utensils
• Never touch food contact surfaces
Food Sources & Storage
• Food and beverage businesses buy food
products from many different sources
• Once the food is purchased, it must be
shipped to the restaurant, then stored
• Each food source (supplier) has workers who
handle food
• Each of these places might cause
contamination in the food they sell
• Food sources must be reliable
• Reliable suppliers keep food products separate
from general supplies during shipping
• Reliable suppliers also:
– Protect food packages from becoming damaged or
– Ship products in vehicles that are clean
• Food must be properly stored to prevent spoilage
and contamination
• The most important rule of storage is first in, first out
• Store food in approved areas
• Protect food from:
Toxic materials
Unclean equipment
Rodent & Insect Control
• Pests such as rodents and insects can cause
serious problems for restaurants
• Insects and rodents can contaminate food,
spread diseases, and destroy your property
• Major ways to control pests are through:
– Good housekeeping
– Preventing entry
– Proper disposal of trash
– Use pesticides as a last resort
Equipment, Utensils, and Surfaces
• Equipment includes all the devices used to
prepare food
• Utensil are all the small pieces of equipment
used in the kitchen, plus all the items used to
serve food to guests, including plates, glasses,
and silverware
• The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has
set standards for equipment and utensils
• The purpose of the standards is to make sure
that the equipment and utensils are easy to
clean and sanitize and safe to use
Cleaning vs. Sanitizing
• Cleaning is the physical removal of soil and
food residues from surfaces of equipment,
utensils, tables, and floors
• Sanitizing is the treatment of a surface with
chemicals or heat to reduce the number of
disease-causing organisms to safe levels
• Dishwashing is one of the most important jobs
in the food and beverage business
• The purpose of dishwashing is to clean and
sanitize equipment, dishware, and utensils
• Dishwashing is a two-part process:
– Clean
– Sanitize
Food Handling
• Food handling most often refers to procedures that
prevent the growth of bacteria in foods
• The two basic rules of food handling are:
– Keep cold foods cold
– Keep hot foods hot
• A holding unit is a piece of equipment that holds
food at a specific temperature
• A thermometer is a tool for measuring temperature
• A thermostat is an automatic device that regulates
the temperature of a piece of equipment
Preparing Raw Food
• Cross-contamination can occur when:
– Raw food is placed on a surface, then cooked food
is placed on the same surface
• Cross-contamination takes place from:
– Food to food transfer
– Surface to surface transfer
– Food to surface transfer
– Not washing hands after handling each item
Preparing Raw Food
• Raw food often has small amounts of
pathogens and other contaminants
• Raw fruits and vegetables often have soil on
• Soil contains many microorganisms
• A major danger when handling raw food is
• Cross-contamination is the transfer of
microorganisms from one food item to
• The first goal of cooking is to make it
• The second goal of cooking is to destroy
pathogens or reduce them to safe levels
• The FDA temperature recommendations are
minimum temperature and amount of time
the food must be held
FDA Minimum Internal Food Temperature
Minimum Internal Minimum Holding
Beef, Pork, Fish
15 seconds
Ground Meats,
15 seconds
Poultry, Stuffed
Meats, Stuffed Pasta,
Stuffing, Casseroles
15 seconds
Procedures to Prevent CrossContamination
• Thoroughly clean raw food
– Wash all fruits and vegetables
• Prepare raw seafood, poultry, and meat on
surfaces and with utensils that can be
• Do not handle raw foods, including eggs, then
touch cooked or foods that will not be cooked
• Do not let raw foods drip on cooked foods in
the refrigerator
Cooling, Thawing, & Reheating
• Cooling, thawing, and reheating are processes
that take time and require food to go through
the temperature danger zone
• Special precautions must be taken to reduce
the growth of bacteria during cooling,
thawing, and reheating
Cooling, Thawing, & Reheating
Cool as quickly as possible
1. Place food in a clean stainless steel container
2. Place container in cold water or ice bath
3. Stir food during cooling
4. Cool until food reaches 40°F
Keep food from reaching and
staying in the temperature
danger zone
* Thaw in original wrapper in the refrigerator
* Thaw in original wrapper under cold running
water in a sink
* Thaw in microwave
Bring to 165°F as quickly as
Reheat only enough food to meet needs
Reheat liquids over direct heat
Reheat solid foods in a convection oven
Small portions can be reheated in a
Never use a steam table to reheat foods.
• Holding can be defined as keeping potentially
hazardous foods out of the temperature
danger zone during the period while the food
is waiting to be served to guests.
• Safe handling for cold foods requires that they
must be kept at 40°F or below
• Safe holding for hot foods requires that they
must be kept at 140°F or above after cooking