Transcript Right Plant / Right Place
John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division [email protected]
Proper planning and plant selection:
affects everything else you do in your landscape.
can save energy, effort, water, money, etc.
makes the landscape sustainable and more enjoyable.
For example, layered planting:
miniature firebush (
) bottom layer coco plum (
) next shrub layer gumbo limbo (
NOTE: Understory shrub layer missing only because of parking lot line-of-sight requirements
needle palm (Arecaceae) shade tolerant
Surianaceae Great shrub for dry areas.
This is a process, not a one-time event!
Analyze your site.
Use the Florida-Friendly Plant Database http://floridayards.org/fyplants/inde x.php
for your region to start selection.
Check each species’ geographic distribution in Florida u/ Try to
edge of their ranges OPTIMAL
avoid species at the
(e.g., red maple for a planting in the Keys) as they may be acceptable but not Use http://plants.usda.gov
determine if a species is native if you need to know. to Find plants on Plant List or PlantFinder.com
organic matter content, including peat pH texture (sand, silt, clay) geological features (limestone, coral, etc.) nutrient content soil testing is currently very difficult
sun or shade
Light regime critical Sand Silt FL karst Clay
wet vs. dry drainage patterns
need for wind breaks partially enclosed areas
Standing water: plant sedge and mow Sea Grape Coccoloba uvifera , in front of Live oak Quercus virginiana : as a windbreak Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea privacy screen Bamboo Garden
status of irrigation health, arrangement, and maintenance requirements power lines sidewalks /driveways buildings desirable wildlife Hardscape Limitations Circular drive overplanted- no plan
• • •
The greater the number of strata (layers) The greater the protection from hurricane damage and The greater the reduction in temperature at ground level Canopy Subcanopy or Understory Shrub layer Herbs & Groundcovers
What is the
size of the plant?
in sun or shade?
in wet or dry soils?
Does it grow in salty conditions?
Is it susceptible to pests that may be difficult to control?
Be familiar with scientific names-
they are key to information
Buy healthy plants.
Look for new growth.
Roots should be white and fibrous.
Avoid pot bound plants.
Avoid diseased or insect infested plants.
Master Gardeners with lenses inspect plants
Prepare the soil.
Add organic matter to plant beds, especially compost.
Soil tests are not very reliable and UF cannot test ours if your pH is over 7.4
Master Gardeners shop for Bay Cedar,
, in the rain.
Attract wildlife; provide shelter.
Add color and texture.
Increase property values. Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape.
carbon, mitigating greenhouse gases Reduce heating/cooling costs if properly planted at 30’ from building
Palms have only ONE terminal growing point.
Palms diameter, annually, as they mature.
increase in Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter.
Palms have a fibrous instead of a tap root system Many palms are harvested from native plant stands. Spring and summer are good times to transplant palms.
Palms depend on 8-2-12 +4 fertilizer Palms have many growth habits See palm websites for specialized information Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm showing Solitary stem, with or without leaf bases “boots”
Amount of sunlight Overhead power lines Presence of other trees, structures, roads Underground utility lines Water table, drainage Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home!
Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola
Southern Red Cedar
Saw Palmetto Know the climatic conditions of your property.
Proper planning is important.
Match the plants with the site!
Know the mature size of the shrub Be sure to group shrubs according to watering and sunlight needs.
Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread.
Plant carefully with understory trees to install 3 layers above the ground and below canopy.
DIVERSIFY- the greater the number of species, the less likely you will lose a large portion of the landscape in the event of a disease or pest.
Major turf grass species in Florida
St. Augustine grass (70%) The most popular
Bahia grass Very drought- tolerant Bermuda grass Used on golf courses Centipede grass Common in the Panhandle New cultivars being evaluated by UF at Hastings Zoysia New cultivars of
Manila Grass- has texture of Bermuda and wears well for S FL
POWDER PUFF MIMOSA
See EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the Urban Landscape” HS 960 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep135 and “Mimosa strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep343
For residential use, turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!
Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf, when turf is not necessary for recreation or other uses of the space.
Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched beds with shrubs, pathways, etc. Remember to
A native plant must also be the RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT PLACE. Native plants are NOT better adapted than others in the right place once they are out of native soil. Native species are NOT more drought tolerant than exotic species in the RIGHT PLACE.
The ONLY advantage of native plants is their food value to native and migratory fauna, and to feed native pollinators (bees, hawkmoths, hummingbirds).
‘Coontie’ Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries http://www.afnn.org
Sambucus nigra var. canadensis
Integrated Pest Management
John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent
Aspects of Integrated Pest Management
Integrated Pest Management – Cultural Practices
• Plant Resistant plant varieties • Rotate Crops • Destroy- mulch and compost crop refuse • Till soil and include compost • Variation in time of planting or harvesting • Pruning or thinning of perennials • Fertilization- only minimum amounts • Sanitation and water management • Planting of trap crops • Traps, physical removal of pests 23
Integrated Pest Management – Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial Insect Ladybugs Picture Hover or Flower Flies Robber Flies Ground Beetles (6-spotted Tiger Beetle pictured here) Big-eyed Bugs Target Prey
Larvae and adults feed
How to Attract Them
Pollen & nectar plants like dill, on aphids, scales, mites, goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum. and other insect eggs Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods Larvae feed on aphids and small caterpillars Pollen and nectar plants, especially Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel, carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower & plant sunflowers. Adults capture flying insects. Larvae live in soil and feed on soil pests (e.g., grubs). Feed on snails, slugs, cutworms and other caterpillars, potato beetles Flowering plants of any kind as a nectar source.
Pollen-providing plants. Dense cover crops and stone walkways between beds provide cover.
Adults eat aphids, small Pollen & nectar plants like dill, caterpillars, mites, turf grubs, thrips and other small insects.
goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods 24
Integrated Pest Management – Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial Insect Picture Assassin Bugs Lacewings (Green and Brown) Target Prey
Adults and nymphs suck Perennial flowering plants provide fluids- killing small aphids and other small
How to Attract Them
insects; larger assassins kill caterpillars. Larvae (top) eat aphids, Plant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos, scales, thrips, mites, immature whiteflies and Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod. eggs of some pests
Tachnid Flies Parasitoid Wasps
Larvae are parasites of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Dill squash bugs, cutworms, Family, Sweet Alyssum and spearmint Japanese beetles and many caterpillars.
adults inject eggs inside Pollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae larvae, caterpillars, or pest eggs; wasp larvae (Umbelliferae) Family, mints and other fragrant herbs. White clover and other eat host legumes also attractants. Broccoli and radishes in flower provide nectar.
Integrated Pest Management – Organic Alternatives to Pesticides
Integrated Pest Management – Chemical Controls
Examples: 1. Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like Imidacloprid, used as a
for plants NOT pollinated by honeybees.
2. Naturally Occurring Pesticides – Plant extracts with pyrethrins, isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera
Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria
, and other species in the Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family. 3. Citrus oil- especially from oranges.
4. Eucalyptus oil.
5. Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray.
6. Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad 27
Attracting Wildlife to your Florida-Friendly Landscape
John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent
Background Florida’s Biological Diversity
Total Animal Species > 17,117 Vascular Plant species > 4,200
) • • •
480 96 177
species of birds (FFWCC) species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern) species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern) and
Florida’s Biological Diversity
• • •
species of amphibians (FLMNH) species of freshwater fish
More than 1,000
species of marine fish (FFWCC) • Given that
more than 4,675
species of beetles and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there are
species of insects in the state (W. Kern, UF-IFAS)
Shelter (Large plants or snags to hide in); protection from inclement weather; safety from predators and disturbance; to live and raise young Food Water Space sufficient to permit a range or territory for foraging, hunting and mating
Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife
• Limit the Amount of Lawn • Increase Vertical Layering • Provide Snags and Brush piles • Provide Water • Plant Native Vegetation • Remove Invasive Exotic Plants • Provide Bird/Bat houses and Bird Feeders • Manage Pets • Reduce Pesticide Use • Expand the Scale of Habitat
Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance
• Do not clean with soap. • Do not use sugar substitutes or honey, red dye in nectar substitute • Do not use insecticides in area • Do clean regularly with vinegar • Do change solution every 3-5 days
DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS (Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers)
Submerged (submersed) wetland plants
grow entirely underwater and cannot survive out of water. Some species are rooted in the soil and some are rootless.
Floating or Floating-Leaved wetland plants
include plants that are rooted in the ground with leaves floating on the surface and species that float free on the surface with roots dangling in the water.
Emergent (immersed) wetland plants
are rooted in the ground with the lower portion of the plant growing below and the upper portion growing above the water. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA00700.pdf
Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: A Collaborative Effort
Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Contact Information
Florida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program Florida Master Gardeners of Broward County UF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension Education Parks and Recreation Division 954-357-5270 [email protected] NatureScape Broward Program Certified.aspx
For yard certification, visit http://www.broward.org/NaturalResources/NatureScape/Pages/HowToGet , then contact [email protected]
A SERVICE OF THE BROWARD COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Broward county programs are open to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. Disabled individuals are requested to notify program two days prior to program for auxiliary aids if assistance is required. Disabled parking space and wheelchair ramp are available.
”The Foundation for the Gator Nation, An Equal Opportunity Institution” This public document was promulgated at a cost of $126 or $1.26 cents per copy to inform the public about Florida Friendly Landscaping TM , NatureScape, and how to conserve water and reduce nonpoint source pollution.