Right Plant / Right Place

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Transcript Right Plant / Right Place

John Pipoly, Ph.D., FLS University of Florida, IFAS/Broward County Extension Education Section Parks and Recreation Division [email protected]

Proper planning and plant selection:

 affects everything else you do in your landscape.

 can save energy, effort, water, money, etc.

 makes the landscape sustainable and more enjoyable.

For example, layered planting:

 miniature firebush (

Hamelia patens

) bottom layer  coco plum (

Chrysobalanus icaco

) next   shrub layer gumbo limbo (

Bursera simaruba

) tree

NOTE: Understory shrub layer missing only because of parking lot line-of-sight requirements

Rhapidophyllum histrix,

needle palm (Arecaceae) shade tolerant 

Suriana maritima

Bay Cedar,

Surianaceae Great shrub for dry areas.

    This is a process, not a one-time event!

Analyze your site.

Use the Florida-Friendly Plant Database http://floridayards.org/fyplants/inde x.php

for your region to start selection.

Check each species’ geographic distribution in Florida u/ Try to

edge of their ranges OPTIMAL



avoid species at the

(e.g., red maple for a planting in the Keys) as they may be acceptable but not Use http://plants.usda.gov

determine if a species is native if you need to know. to Find plants on Plant List or PlantFinder.com


 organic matter content, including peat     pH texture (sand, silt, clay) geological features (limestone, coral, etc.) nutrient content  soil testing is currently very difficult

Light Exposure

sun or shade

Light regime critical Sand Silt FL karst Clay


 wet vs. dry  drainage patterns

Wind Patterns

   need for wind breaks  partially enclosed areas


privacy noise

Standing water: plant sedge and mow Sea Grape Coccoloba uvifera , in front of Live oak Quercus virginiana : as a windbreak Golden Bamboo Phyllostachys aurea privacy screen Bamboo Garden

Existing Landscape

 status of irrigation  health, arrangement, and maintenance requirements  power lines  sidewalks /driveways  buildings  desirable wildlife Hardscape Limitations Circular drive overplanted- no plan

• • •

The greater the number of strata (layers) The greater the protection from hurricane damage and The greater the reduction in temperature at ground level Canopy Subcanopy or Understory Shrub layer Herbs & Groundcovers

 What is the


size of the plant?

 Does it

grow well

in sun or shade?

 Does it

grow well

in wet or dry soils?

 Does it grow in salty conditions?

 Is it susceptible to pests that may be difficult to control?

Helianthus debilis

Beach Daisy

Be familiar with scientific names-

they are key to information 

Buy healthy plants.

 Look for new growth.

 Roots should be white and fibrous.

 Avoid pot bound plants.

 Avoid diseased or insect infested plants.

Master Gardeners with lenses inspect plants 

Prepare the soil.

 Add organic matter to plant beds, especially compost.

 Soil tests are not very reliable and UF cannot test ours if your pH is over 7.4

Master Gardeners shop for Bay Cedar,

Suriana maritima

, in the rain.

       Provide shade.

Attract wildlife; provide shelter.

Add color and texture.

Increase property values. Provide a framework for the rest of the landscape.

Sequester and


carbon, mitigating greenhouse gases Reduce heating/cooling costs if properly planted at 30’ from building

Quercus virginiana

‘Live Oak’

 Palms have only ONE terminal growing point.

 Palms diameter, annually, as they mature.

do not

increase in  Palm roots grow longer but do not increase in diameter.

 Palms have a fibrous instead of a tap root system  Many palms are harvested from native plant stands.  Spring and summer are good times to transplant palms.

 Palms depend on 8-2-12 +4 fertilizer  Palms have many growth habits  See palm websites for specialized information Sabal palmetto Cabbage Palm showing Solitary stem, with or without leaf bases “boots”


 Amount of sunlight  Overhead power lines  Presence of other trees, structures, roads  Underground utility lines  Water table, drainage  Trees should be planted at least 15 ft from the foundation of a home!

Juniperus virginiana var. silicicola

Southern Red Cedar

Serenoa repens

Saw Palmetto      Know the climatic conditions of your property.

Proper planning is important.

Match the plants with the site!

Know the mature size of the shrub Be sure to group shrubs according to watering and sunlight needs.

   Don’t plant shrubs too close together. Space them according to how far they will spread.

Plant carefully with understory trees to install 3 layers above the ground and below canopy.

DIVERSIFY- the greater the number of species, the less likely you will lose a large portion of the landscape in the event of a disease or pest.


Pithecellobium keyense

Major turf grass species in Florida

 St. Augustine grass (70%)  The most popular

St. Augustine

 Bahia grass  Very drought- tolerant    Bermuda grass  Used on golf courses Centipede grass  Common in the Panhandle  New cultivars being evaluated by UF at Hastings Zoysia  New cultivars of

Zoysia matrella-

Manila Grass- has texture of Bermuda and wears well for S FL

Bahia Bermuda



Arachis glabrata


Mimosa strigillosa

See EDIS pubs: “Guide to Using Rhizomal Perennial Peanut in the Urban Landscape” HS 960 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep135 and “Mimosa strigillosa, Powder puff Mimosa” ENH 1075 http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep343

For residential use, turf areas should be functional and easy to maintain!

  Landscaping beds require less effort and cost less to maintain than turf, when turf is not necessary for recreation or other uses of the space.

Consider low-maintenance ground covers, mulched beds with shrubs, pathways, etc. Remember to


the landscape.

 A native plant must also be the RIGHT PLANT in the RIGHT PLACE. Native plants are NOT better adapted than others in the right place once they are out of native soil.  Native species are NOT more drought tolerant than exotic species in the RIGHT PLACE.

 The ONLY advantage of native plants is their food value to native and migratory fauna, and to feed native pollinators (bees, hawkmoths, hummingbirds).

Zamia floridana

‘Coontie’ Contact: Association of Florida Native Nurseries http://www.afnn.org


Calicarpa americana

“Beauty berry”

Passiflora incarnata

“Passion Vine”

Rhapidophyllum hystrix

‘Needle Palm’

Sambucus nigra var. canadensis


Integrated Pest Management

John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent

Aspects of Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management – Cultural Practices

• Plant Resistant plant varieties • Rotate Crops • Destroy- mulch and compost crop refuse • Till soil and include compost • Variation in time of planting or harvesting • Pruning or thinning of perennials • Fertilization- only minimum amounts • Sanitation and water management • Planting of trap crops • Traps, physical removal of pests 23

Integrated Pest Management – Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial Insect Ladybugs Picture Hover or Flower Flies Robber Flies Ground Beetles (6-spotted Tiger Beetle pictured here) Big-eyed Bugs Target Prey

Larvae and adults feed

How to Attract Them

Pollen & nectar plants like dill, on aphids, scales, mites, goldenrod, Cosmos, Sweet Alyssum. and other insect eggs Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods Larvae feed on aphids and small caterpillars Pollen and nectar plants, especially Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) (e.g., fennel, carrots, celery, dill). Let Broccoli flower & plant sunflowers. Adults capture flying insects. Larvae live in soil and feed on soil pests (e.g., grubs). Feed on snails, slugs, cutworms and other caterpillars, potato beetles Flowering plants of any kind as a nectar source.

Pollen-providing plants. Dense cover crops and stone walkways between beds provide cover.

Adults eat aphids, small Pollen & nectar plants like dill, caterpillars, mites, turf grubs, thrips and other small insects.

goldenrod, Cosmos, alfalfa, Sweet Alyssum. Provide water in pan filled with gravel during dry periods 24

Integrated Pest Management – Beneficial Insects for Your Landscape Beneficial Insect Picture Assassin Bugs Lacewings (Green and Brown) Target Prey

Adults and nymphs suck Perennial flowering plants provide fluids- killing small aphids and other small

How to Attract Them


insects; larger assassins kill caterpillars. Larvae (top) eat aphids, Plant dill, sunflowers, caraway, Cosmos, scales, thrips, mites, immature whiteflies and Sweet Alyssum and goldenrod. eggs of some pests

Tachnid Flies Parasitoid Wasps

Larvae are parasites of Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Carrot or Dill squash bugs, cutworms, Family, Sweet Alyssum and spearmint Japanese beetles and many caterpillars.

adults inject eggs inside Pollen & nectar plants in Apiaceae larvae, caterpillars, or pest eggs; wasp larvae (Umbelliferae) Family, mints and other fragrant herbs. White clover and other eat host legumes also attractants. Broccoli and radishes in flower provide nectar.


Integrated Pest Management – Organic Alternatives to Pesticides


Integrated Pest Management – Chemical Controls

Examples: 1. Systemic Pesticides-- Neonicotine compounds like Imidacloprid, used as a


for plants NOT pollinated by honeybees.

2. Naturally Occurring Pesticides – Plant extracts with pyrethrins, isolated from plants related to marigolds in the genera

Tagetes, Tanacetum, Matricaria

, and other species in the Helenieae Tribe of the Asteraceae or Sunflower Family. 3. Citrus oil- especially from oranges.

4. Eucalyptus oil.

5. Garlic, onion and cayenne pepper spray.

6. Sprays from fermentation processes, such as Spinosad 27

Attracting Wildlife to your Florida-Friendly Landscape

John J. Pipoly III, Ph.D., Extension Agent

Background Florida’s Biological Diversity

• •

Total Animal Species > 17,117 Vascular Plant species > 4,200



) • • •

480 96 177

species of birds (FFWCC) species of mammals (UF-IFAS-Kern) species of turtles and snakes (UF-IFAS-Kern) and


crocodilians (FLMNH)

Florida’s Biological Diversity

• • •

111 250

species of amphibians (FLMNH) species of freshwater fish

More than 1,000

species of marine fish (FFWCC) • Given that

more than 4,675

species of beetles and that beetles typically comprise 1/3 of the total insects in an area, UF experts estimate that there are

over 15,000

species of insects in the state (W. Kern, UF-IFAS)

Wildlife Needs

 Shelter (Large plants or snags to hide in); protection from inclement weather; safety from predators and disturbance; to live and raise young  Food  Water  Space sufficient to permit a range or territory for foraging, hunting and mating

Tips for Landscaping for Wildlife

• Limit the Amount of Lawn • Increase Vertical Layering • Provide Snags and Brush piles • Provide Water • Plant Native Vegetation • Remove Invasive Exotic Plants • Provide Bird/Bat houses and Bird Feeders • Manage Pets • Reduce Pesticide Use • Expand the Scale of Habitat

Hummingbird Feeder Maintenance

• Do not clean with soap. • Do not use sugar substitutes or honey, red dye in nectar substitute • Do not use insecticides in area • Do clean regularly with vinegar • Do change solution every 3-5 days

DON’T FORGET WATERWAYS (Lakes, Ponds, Canals, Rivers)

Submerged (submersed) wetland plants

grow entirely underwater and cannot survive out of water. Some species are rooted in the soil and some are rootless.

Floating or Floating-Leaved wetland plants

include plants that are rooted in the ground with leaves floating on the surface and species that float free on the surface with roots dangling in the water.

Emergent (immersed) wetland plants

are rooted in the ground with the lower portion of the plant growing below and the upper portion growing above the water. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/FA/FA00700.pdf

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™: A Collaborative Effort

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Contact Information

Florida-Friendly Landscaping: Florida Yards & Neighborhoods Program Florida Master Gardeners of Broward County UF-IFAS/ Broward County Extension Education Parks and Recreation Division 954-357-5270 [email protected] NatureScape Broward Program Certified.aspx

For yard certification, visit http://www.broward.org/NaturalResources/NatureScape/Pages/HowToGet , then contact [email protected]

Florida-Friendly Landscaping™

A SERVICE OF THE BROWARD COUNTY BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS Broward county programs are open to all persons regardless of race, color, religion, national origin, gender, age, disability, or sexual orientation. Disabled individuals are requested to notify program two days prior to program for auxiliary aids if assistance is required. Disabled parking space and wheelchair ramp are available.

”The Foundation for the Gator Nation, An Equal Opportunity Institution” This public document was promulgated at a cost of $126 or $1.26 cents per copy to inform the public about Florida Friendly Landscaping TM , NatureScape, and how to conserve water and reduce nonpoint source pollution.