#### Transcript Microeconomics: Theory and Applications David Besanko and

Chapter 2 Demand and Supply Analysis Outline 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Competitive Markets Defined The Market Demand Curve The Market Supply Curve Equilibrium Characterizing Demand and Supply: Elasticity 2 Example: Oil Market Crude oil prices 1947 – 2004 OPEC oil production Why? Weather, Hurricanes in Gulf China and India economies booming Political Crisis with Iran, Iraq, Russia, Nigeria Oil production per day in Non-OPEC countries declining Uncertainty over OPEC production capabilities 3 Example: Oil Market (cont’d) How could we bring prices down? Reduce Demand – short-run Find new reserves – short-run Develop new technologies that are not reliant on oil Forward thinking solution These become feasible as oil prices rise. Many are now feasible 4 Competitive Markets Definition: Are those with sellers and buyers that are small and numerous enough that they take the market price as given when they decide how much to buy and sell. 5 Competitive Market Assumptions 1. Fragmented market: many buyers and sellers Implies buyers and sellers are price takers 2. Undifferentiated Products: consumers 3. 4. perceive the product to be identical so don’t care who they buy it from Perfect Information about price: consumers know the price of all sellers Equal Access to Resources: everyone has access to the same technology and inputs. Free entry into the market, so if profitable for new firms to enter into the market they will 6 Market Demand Market Demand function: Tells us how the quantity of a good demanded by the sum of all consumers in the market depends on various factors. Qd =(Q,p,po, I,…) The Demand Curve: Plots the aggregate quantity of a good that consumers are willing to buy at different prices, holding constant other demand drivers such as prices of other goods, consumer income, quality. Qd=Q(p) 7 Market Demand – Example Demand for New Automobiles in the US Price (thousands of dollars) 53 40 0 Demand curve for automobiles in the United States in 2000 2 5.3 Quantity (millions of automobiles per year) 8 Market Demand Note On a graph: P, price, is ALWAYS on vertical axis and Q on horizontal axis. When writing out a demand function: we write demand as Q as a function of P… If P is written as function of Q, it is called the inverse demand. Demand Function: Qd=100-2P Inverse Demand Function: P=50 - Qd/2 9 Market Demand Law of Demand Law of Demand states that the quantity of a good demanded decreases when the price of this good increases. Empirical regularity The demand curve: shifts when factors other than own price change… If the change increases the willingness of consumers to acquire the good, the demand curve shifts right If the change decreases the willingness of consumers to acquire the good, the demand curve shifts left 10 Market Demand Some Demand Shifters Consumer incomes Consumer tastes Advertising What would a rise in tax rate do? Note: For a given demand curve we assume everything else but price is held fixed. 11 Market Demand Rule A move along the demand curve for a good can only be triggered by a change in the price of that good. Any change in another factor that affects the consumers’ willingness to pay for the good results in a shift in the demand curve for the good 12 Market Supply Market Supply Function: Tells us how the quantity of a good supplied by the sum of all producers in the market depends on various factors Qs=Q(p,po,w, …) Po = price of other goods Market Supply Curve: Plots the aggregate quantity of a good that will be offered for sale at different prices. Qs=Q(P) 13 Market Supply E.g. Supply Curve for Wheat in Canada Price (dollars per bushel) Supply curve for wheat in Canada in 2000 0 0.15 Quantity (billions of bushels per year) 14 Market Supply The Law of Supply states that the quantity of a good offered increases when the price of this good increases. Empirical regularity The supply curve shifts when factors other than own price change… If the change increases the willingness of producers to offer the good at the same price, the supply curve shifts right If the change decreases the willingness of producers to offer the good at the same price, the supply curve shifts left 15 Market Supply Supply Shifters Price of factors of production e.g. wage Technology changes Weather conditions Hurricane Katrina reduced supply of oil Number of producers change What is the effect of a rise in the minimum wage? 16 Market Supply Rule A move along the supply curve for a good can only be triggered by a change in the price of that good. Any change in another factor that affects the producers’ willingness to offer for the good results in a shift in the supply curve for the good. 17 Market Supply E.g. Canadian Wheat Supply Curve: QS = p + .05r QS = quantity of wheat (billions of bushels) p = price of wheat (dollars per bushel) r = average rainfall in western Canada,May – August (inches per month) Questions: 1.What is the quantity of wheat supplied at price of $2 and rainfall of 3 inches per month? 2.15 18 Market Supply E.g: Canadian Wheat QS = p + .05r 2. 3. 4. How do you write the supply curve if rainfall is 3 inches per month? QS = p + 0.15 Does the law of supply hold? We know because the constant in front of p is positive. As rainfall increases how does it shift the supply curve? (e.g., r = 4 => Q = p + 0.2) To the right 19 Market Supply E.g: Canadian Wheat QS = p + .05r Price ($) r=0 r=3 Supply with no rain Supply with 3” rain 0 .15 Quantity, Billion bushels 20 Market Equilibrium Definition: A market equilibrium is a price such that, at this price, the quantities demanded and supplied are the same. (Demand and supply curves intersect at equilibrium) 21 Market Equilibrium Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and Quantity for Cranberries Set-Up: Qd = 500 – 4p QS = -100 + 2p p = price of cranberries (dollars per barrel) Q = demand or supply in millions of barrels per year Questions: 1.Find the equilibrium price of cranberries? 22 Market Equilibrium Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and Quantity for Cranberries Set supply equal to demand (Qd = Qs ) 1. 500 – 4p = -100 + 2p Now solve for P: P* = $100 Find the equilibrium price of cranberries? 2. Plug P* back into either Qd OR Qs Plugging into Qd: 500-4(100)=100 Plugging into Qs: -100+2(100)=100 Q*=100 23 Market Equilibrium Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and Quantity for Cranberries 1. Now lets see how to graph supply and demand Some folks like to rewrite so Q is on the RHS Qd = 500 – 4p OR p = 125 - Qd/4 Find intercepts: if q=0 p=125, if p=0 Q=500 QS = -100 + 2p OR P = 50 + QS/2 Q=0 then P=50 24 Practice: Finding Equilibrium Price and Quantity for Cranberries Price 125 Market Supply: P = 50 + QS/2 P* = 100 Equilibrium 50 Market Demand: P = 125 - Qd/4 Q* = 100 Quantity 25 Elasticity Elasticity of Demand: tells us how demand for a good changes when some other variable changes. Or the percentage change in quantity demanded resulting from a 1 percent change in another variable. % Q d % som ething else Where Qd is a demand function. 26 Elasticity continued Own price elasticity of demand: how demand for a good changes when the price (P) of that good changes %DQ DQ Q ¶Q P = = * d %DP DP / P ¶P Q d d Note: if you are given P you can figure out Q from the demand curve. 27 Elasticity (more of the math) % Q % P Q P * Q Q P P P Q Q P (Q *100 *100 2 Q1) Q1 ( P 2 P1 ) p1 * P Q 28 Elasticity: examples %DQ DQ Q ¶Q P = = * %DP DP / P ¶P Q d d E.g. elasticity = -2 (imagine it is -2/1) If the price goes up by 1 percent demand will be reduced by 2 percent E.g. elasticity = -0.5 (imagine it is 0.5/1) If the price goes up by 1 percent demand will be reduced by .5 percent percent. 29 Elasticity Continued Price Elasticity of Demand is very useful. Suppose own a car business total revenue is: price * quantity= P.Q You can increase the price (P), but if you do that demand (Q) for your good will drop The price elasticity of demand tell you how much the quantity will drop. 30 Types of Elasticity When a one percent change in price leads to a greater than one-percent change in quantity demanded, the demand curve is elastic. (Q,P < -1) When a one-percent change in price leads to a less than onepercent change in quantity demanded, the demand curve is inelastic. (0 > Q,P > -1) When a one-percent change in price leads to an exactly onepercent change in quantity demanded, the demand curve is unit elastic. (Q,P = -1) 31 How Elastic are These Curves? D2 Perfectly Inelastic P P1 D1 Q2 Perfectly Elastic Q 32 Elasticity Estimates: Price Elasticity of Demand for Selected Grocery Products C a te g o ry E stim a te d Q ,P S o ft D rin ks -3 .1 8 C a n n e d S e a fo o d -1 .7 9 Canned Soup -1 .6 2 C o o kie s -1 .6 B re a kfa st C e re a l -0 .2 T o ile t P a p e r -2 .4 2 La u n d ry D e te rg e n t T o o th p a ste -1 .5 8 S n a ck C ra cke rs -0 .8 6 F ro ze n E n tre e s -0 .7 7 P a p e r T o w e ls -0 .0 5 D ish D e te rg e n t -0 .7 4 F a b ric S o fte n e r -0 .7 3 Which products is demand elastic and which is demand inelastic? -0 .4 5 33 Elasticity Versus Slope Slope: is the ratio of absolute changes in quantity and price. (= Q/P). Measures the absolute change in quantity demanded (in units of quantity) due to a one-unit change in price. Qd=a-bP a is the intercept, -b is the slope Elasticity: is the ratio of relative (or percentage) changes in quantity and price. Measure percentage change in quantity demanded due to one-percent change in the price of the good 34 Elasticity Versus Slope Why elasticity is more useful? it is unitless so allows us to easily compare across countries and goods Units of quantities will be different for different goods. How to compare snow boards to oranges. Prices are different across different countries. More difficult to compare Yemeni Ryials to US $ 35 LINEAR Demand Curve (straight line) Slope, choke price, elasticity Linear Demand Fn (general form) Qd = a – bp a, b are positive constants p is price Notice that: b is the slope a/b is the choke price: price at which quantity demanded is zero Easier to see if look at inverse demand curve: P=a/b-Qd/b 36 Linear Demand Curve Slope, choke price, elasticity Elasticity is: Q,P = (Q/p)(p/Q) …definition… =-b(p/Q) Note that: When Q=0, elasticity is - When p=0, elasticity is 0 so…elasticity falls from 0 to - along the linear demand curve, but slope is constant. 37 Elasticity with a Linear Demand Curve P a/b Q,P = - Elastic region a/2b • Q,P = -1 Inelastic region Q,P = 0 0 a/2 a Q 38 What Affects Elasticity? Availability of Substitutes: Demand is more(less) elastic when there are more(fewer) substitutes for a product. E.g: Demand for all beverages less elastic than demand for Coca-Cola There are substitute for Coca-Cola, drink Pepsi It is harder to find a substitute for soda if you love soda. % of income spending on product Demand is more(less) when the consumer’s expenditure on the product is large(small) 39 What Affects Elasticity? Necessity Products The demand is less price elastic when the product is a necessity. Market Level vs Brand-Level Price Demand tends to be more elastic for a particular brand of a good, than for the good in general 40 Problem: Determining Elasticity Linear demand curve if Qd = 400 – 10p, and p = 30, what is the elasticity of demand w.r.t own price? Q,P = (-b)(P)/(Q) Q = 400 – 10 (30) = 100 Q,P = (-10)(30)/(100) = -3 "elastic” Or use calculas’ ¶Q d P 30 30 * d = -10 * = -10 * = -3 ¶P 400 -10P 400 -10(30) Q Why is elasticity negative? demand curve downward sloping. 41 Problem: Determining Elasticity Constant elasticity demand curve Constant Elasticity Fn (general form): Qd = Ap = elasticity of demand and is negative p = price A = constant Example: If demand can be expressed as QP = 100, what is the price elasticity of demand? Q=100P-1 , so elasticity is -1 42 Constant Elasticity Demand Curve Price • P Observed price and quantity Constant elasticity demand curve Linear demand curve 0 Q Quantity 43 Importance of Brands Model Price Estimated Q,P Mazda 323 $5,039 -6.358 Nissan Sentra $5,661 -6.528 Ford Escort $5,663 -6.031 Lexus LS400 $27,544 -3.085 BMW 735i $37,490 -3.515 • Demand for individual models is highly elastic • Market-level price elasticity of demand for automobiles -1 to -1.5 • Compact automobiles have lots of substitutes Luxury cars have less substitutes Demand for compact cars more elastic than luxury cars. Example: Price Elasticities of Demand for Automobile Makes, 1990. 44 Other Common Types of Elasticities Other Elasticities -- Elasticity of "X" with respect to "Y": (X/Y)(Y/X) X and Y could be anything Price elasticity of supply: (QS/p)(p/QS) measures curvature of supply curve Income elasticity of demand:(Qd/I)(I/Qd) measures degree of shift of demand curve as income changes. Cross price elasticity of demand: (Qd/Po)(Po/Qd) measures degree of shift of demand curve when the price of a substitute changes 45 The Cross-Price Elasticity of Cars Demand PRICE Sentra Escort LS400 735i Sentra -6.528 0.454 0.000 0.000 Escort 0.078 -6.031 0.001 0.000 LS400 0.000 0.001 -3.085 0.032 735i 0.000 0.001 0.093 -3.515 Practice Questions: What is the cross price elasticity of demand of the Sentra with respect to Escort? 0.454 If the price of the Escort increases by 10 %, what will happen to the demand for the Sentra? The demand for Sentra will increase by 4.54 % 46 Elasticities of Demand for Coke/Pepsi Elasticity Coke Pepsi Price elasticity of demand -1.47 -1.55 Cross-price elasticity of demand 0.52 0.64 Income elasticity of demand 0.58 1.38 Practice Question: What will happen to the demand for coke if income increases by 10%? If income increases by 10%, the demand for coke will increase by 5.8% 47