The Great Days of Sail lecture series Gresham College, London: 24 October 2011 Slavery, Ships and Sickness Dr Stuart Anderson London School of Hygiene.

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Transcript The Great Days of Sail lecture series Gresham College, London: 24 October 2011 Slavery, Ships and Sickness Dr Stuart Anderson London School of Hygiene.

The Great Days of Sail lecture series
Gresham College, London: 24 October 2011
Slavery, Ships and Sickness
Dr Stuart Anderson
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
1
Slave trafficing 1711
S. Hutchinson (©National Maritime Museum, London)
2
Slavery in Egypt
3
Roman slave galley
Christopher Columbus 1451 – 1506
» Christopher Columbus
5
Slave Market, Pernambuco, Brazil, 1821
Spanish Galleon c.1560
7
Sir John Hawkins 1532-1595
8
Jesus of Lubeck
9
Cog vessel c.1400
10
Columbus’s ship Santa Maria c.1492
11
Drakes’
Golden Hind
1577
12
Sugar plantation in Barbados
13
Cane Cutters in Jamaica
(© National Maritime Museum, London)
14
Shipping Sugar 1823
(©National Maritime Museum, London)
15
Early Colonial Tobacco Plantation
King Charles II 1660 - 1685
17
Forts and Castles along Gold Coast, West Africa
(©National Maritime Museum, London)
18
Shipping Slaves off the Pitons, St Lucia 1771
(© National Maritime Museum, London)
19
20
Number of ships leaving main ports
Annual average clearances for slave ships:
Year
1725
1730s
1772-75
1783-92
1793-1804
1807
London
87
25
0
0
0
0
Bristol
63
39
0
0
0
0
Liverpool
2
21
95
88
107
101
21
Bristol docks c.1850
St George’s Dock, Liverpool, 1829
23
Increasing size of slave ships
Average size of slave ships departing Liverpool in the
18th century:
1709
under 70 tons
1730
70-80 tons
1751
80-90 tons
1765
90-120 tons
1785
120-140 tons
1795
140-200 tons
1800
over 200 tons
24
Liverpool Slave Ship, 1780
(William Jackson, ©Merseyside Maritime Museum)
25
Slave ship
Brookes
c. 1781
West Indies Fleet 1702
27
28
Meeting with North American Indians
29
Slaves being marched to coast
Barracoon in the Gallinas, Sierra Leone
Causes of death at sea
Fevers
General Fever
Malignant fever
Pleuritic fever
Bilious Fever
Nervous fever
Putrid fever
Yellow fever
Inflammatory fever
Remittent fever
66%
9%
6%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
Respiratory
Inflammation of lungs
Consumption
Decline
Gastrointestinal
Flux
Dysentery
Diarrhoea
Accidents (drowned)
Suicide (jumped overboard)
50%
25%
25%
51%
37%
9%
100%
80%
33
34
Ship’s travelling medicine chest
36
Contents of medicine chests-internal medicines
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
K
L
M
Powder of Peruvian Bark
" " Angustura ditto
" " Colombo
" " Rhubarb
" " Ipecacuanha
Tartar Emetic
Antimonial wine
Opium
Laudanum
Calomel
Sweet spirit of nitre
Oil of mint
10 lbs
4 lbs
1lb
10 lbs
1 lb
2 ozs
2 ozs
½ lb
1 lb
12 ozs
1 lb
3ozs
37
Contents of medicine chests-external medicines
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Cerate (beeswax)
Simple ointment
Red precipitate
Blue vitriol
Blister plaster
powder of Spanish flies
Extract of Lead
Sugar of lead
Spirit of hartshorn
Flowers of sulphur
Sticking plaster spread on cloth
Tow, lint, rags
3 lbs
3 lbs
6 ozs
2 ozs
3 lbs
4 ozs
2 lbs
1 lbs
2 lbs
10 lbs
38
William
Wilberforce
1759-1833
(by James Heath,
©National Maritime
Museum, London)
Representation
of the brig
Vigilante
1823
(©National Maritime
Museum, London)
40
Slave ship Zong 1781
Sir William
Dolben MP
(1727-1814)
42
Abolition of Slavery in Jamaica, 1807
(© National Maritime Museum, London)
43
HMS Black Joke chasing slave-ship Almirante 1829
Destruction of Boyne Estates by rebel slaves, 1831
(©National Maritime Museum, London)
45
Attack and Capture of the rebels positions near
Montego Bay by boats from HMS Blanche 1831
(©National Maritime Museum, London)
46
HMS Tartar
in action
1809
The Capture of the Slaver Formidable by
HMS Buzzard, 17 December 1834
(©National Maritime Museum, London)
48
European men examining slaves at the slave market of
Rio de Janeiro 1824 (©Wellcome Library)
49
The capture of slaves by an African slaver, 1860
(©Wellcome Library, London)
50
Acknowledgements
• Kenneth Morgan, Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa
to America, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007.
• James Walvin, A Short History of Slavery, London: Penguin
Books, 2007.
• David Richardson, Liverpool and the English Slave Trade, in
Tibbles A (ed.) Transatlantic Slavery: Against Human Dignity,
Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994.
• Michael Stammers, ‘Guineamen’: Some technical aspects of
Slave ships, in Tibbles A (ed.) Against Human Dignity, 1994.
• Sian Rees, Sweet Water and Bitter: The ships that stopped the
Slave trade, London: Chatto and Windus, 2009.
51
52
Slave market in Cairo 1860 (© Wellcome Library, London)
53
dutch fluyt, 1677
54
The slave ship Wanderer, schooner, 1867
RAC Fort, Bance Island, Sierra Leone, 1805
(©National Maritime Museum)
56
Model ship
showing
copper
bottom
57
•
Magellan’s
ship
Victoria
c. 1520
(Carrack)
•
»
»
1520
Victoria
58