#### The Flipped Classroom Teaching high school physics in the 21st century Greg Johnson – Chico State Physics, Class of 2003

Download Report#### Transcript The Flipped Classroom Teaching high school physics in the 21st century Greg Johnson – Chico State Physics, Class of 2003

The Flipped Classroom Teaching high school physics in the 21st century Greg Johnson – Chico State Physics, Class of 2003 What led me to flipping my classroom? Dissatisfaction with the results of traditional lecture, lab and test approach. Exposure to new ideas in education Inquiry TED Talks Children of the NCLB era are not fluent in math. The factory model – Sir Kenneth Robinson Kids can teach themselves – Sugata Mitra Active learning The magical NPR article on Classroom Flipping Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams – creators of the flipped mastery classroom. What we’re going to discuss today Issues with the traditional approach Defining the flipped approach The flipped classroom The mastery model The evolution of the system I use now Issues with the Traditional Approach to Teaching High School Physics Keeping students together Practice at home Accountability Labs Keeping Students Together Absences are common in high school Reasons for absences Sports and other school activities Illness Student government Students get behind and can’t catch up Absences are a big factor in failing grades Absences create extra work for teachers and disrupt instruction Keeping Students Together The Goldilocks Problem – Not All Students are the Same Lecture is too fast for slow learners. Some students need more one-on-one instruction Some students are not auditory learners Lecture is too slow for fast learners. Students become bored and could better use their time in other ways. Practice at Home Real learning happens when students practice. Students are sent home with practice problems that most cannot solve without help. Teachers spend too much time “going over the homework”. Students who are able to complete homework on their own are wasting time. Impossible to answer everyone’s questions in the allotted time. Students don’t do homework, knowing the teacher will do it on the board. Students copy homework to get homework points. Accountability Point mongering Student play the game of school. Students’ goal is point acquisition, not learning. Students are brilliant at “gaming the system”. Accountability Cheating Cheating is epidemic Many students feel that cheating on tests is okay. Most students do not see copying homework or plagiarism as a form of cheating. Cheating thrives in an environment where points are the main goal. Accountability Good students love to memorize. Memorization is the lowest cognitive level on Maslow’s Pyramid of cognition. Physics can’t be memorized! Higher levels of cognition require time and practice. The “Unspoken Contract” A good student behaves themselves, does their work, and studies for tests. A good teacher gives exams that mirror the homework and contain no surprises. Students never learn to apply learning to new situations. Tests can either be challenging and heavily curved or easy and not curved. Labs Research supports “active learning” as an effective tool to developing a deeper understanding. High school classes are typically 60-80% lecture and only 20-40% lab activities. For the sake of time, lab activities are usually “cookbook” approach. Inquiry requires significant time investment and teacher oversight. The Flipped Classroom What is the Flipped Classroom? Homework is done in class Class is also used for increased lab time, small group activities, and one-on-one instruction. Lecture is at home Reading Video lectures Role of the instructor Instructor becomes “guide on the side” instead of “sage on the stage”. Advantages of the Flipped Classroom Videos can be watched many times. Students who process slower can pause and rewind. Many students watch video once to get an overview and again to take notes. Videos are much more concise than lectures. Homework problems are done in an environment where the teacher can answer questions. One-on-one instruction has been shown to be the most effective teaching method but is nearly impossible in a traditional classroom. Advantages of the Flipped Classroom Students who need the most help get it. Teacher can focus on struggling students. Students are less intimidated asking questions one-on-one. Teacher can pinpoint individual strengths and weaknesses and suggest personalized interventions. More Time for Labs! Moving lecture outside class time opens up space for inquiry labs. The Mastery Model Students cannot move from one unit to the next until they demonstrate mastery. Student must pass quizzes with 70%-80% score to advance. Students are allowed multiple attempts to pass quizzes. Grade is based on a combination of test scores AND progress. Benefits Requires deeper understanding of fundamental concepts and prevents students from “just getting by” to pass the course. Students are accountable for learning, not points. Students gain confidence as they master difficult material. The rigor level of tests can be raised very high. Tests don’t have to be curved. Teacher can spend time with each student evaluating their progress More Advantages of the Mastery Model Absences are not as debilitating Students can make up missed work more quickly. Most material is online and can help with long-term absences. Students who process more slowly can take their time. Many students start slow and pick up speed as time progresses. Far less lab equipment is needed to conduct labs Many demonstrations can be turned into lab activities. Demonstrations that are slightly dangerous (our favorite!) can be added to videos. More Advantages of the Mastery Model Students enjoy learning and perform better when stress levels are reduced. Students learn time management. Test stress interferes with brain function – “fight or flight” When students are given room to fail, they learn the consequences of procrastination. Students take ownership of their learning. Students stop treating learning as a “spectator sport”. The Big Disadvantages Time Commitment I spent over 500 hours creating videos. Technology dependence The internet is a fickle mistress. Not all students have the same access to technology. The Pain of Watching Students Fail Student procrastination is given free rein. Can be a little boring when students don’t need help. Harder to do big, flashy demos. The Evolution of My Approach - Videos Conceptual physics videos – 80 videos total Multimedia Elaborate – each 5 minute video required 4-5 hours to create Physics math videos – 75 videos and counting Simple “Khan Academy” style Each take about an hour to create. At the beginning, videos were required. Now they are considered resources. The Evolution of My Approach - Quizzes 1st Year 2nd Year Paper quizzes – combination of multiple choice and math Online quizzes – acquired tablet computers 4 versions Unlimited Versions Disadvantages Disadvantages Students had to wait for quizzes to be graded. Students would share questions. Website is buggy Harder to assign partial credit The Evolution of My Approach - Grading 1st Year 2nd Year Progress was 70% of grade Progress is 40% of grade Progress was reset every week Progress grade is cumulative Quizzes were 10% of grade Quizzes are 40% of grade 80% minimum to move on Labs were graded for a letter grade. 70% minimum to move on Labs are redone until excellent The Evolution of My Approach - Labs Formal Quantitative Spreadsheet analysis Extensive write-up Observational Qualitative Student write detailed observations Making general connections Tactile Designed to experience the “physical” in physics. Many are converted demonstrations Final Thoughts Is the Flipped Classroom for every teacher? Was it worth the effort?