Transcript Hinduism

Jenny D’Anthony
Dana Eastman
 Has
no single founder, as Hinduism was not
founded as a religion, but developed as a
 It developed out of Brahmanism.
 While
Hinduism has no
distinctive starting
point it is believed to
have been brought into
the Indus Valley when
the Indus Valley
Civilization began to
crumble (around 1800
BCE due to flooding or
drought) and Aryans
(Indo-Europeans) came
in and established this
• The three worlds – earth, atmosphere, and heaven
•The three major Hindu gods – Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva
•The three sacred Vedic scriptures – Rg, Yajur, and Sama
•Embodies the essence of the entire universe
• Represent beauty and non-attachment
•The lotus is rooted in the mud but floats on the water
without becoming wet or muddy ant thus suggests that
one should live their life without attachment to their
• Encourages social service, meditation, and yoga
• Upward-pointing triangle – one’s external actions
• Downward- pointing triangle – one’s internal work
•Rising sun – spiritual progress through the balance of
one’s external and internal efforts
• Swastika – fulfillment of one’s ultimate spiritual goal
Trishula • Emblem of god Shiva
• The three prongs represent Shiva’s three
roles: creator, preserver, and destroyer
and Shiva’s three powers: will, action, and
• Represents the universe
• Is used in worship and meditation
• Dot worn on married women’s foreheads
• Symbolized female energy and is
believed to protect women and their
Hindus actually only believe in one God,
Brahma, the founder of all existence. The
Hindu gods (all 330 million of them)
represent different forms of Brahman.
1. Siva – Destroyer of the world.
Represents death and termination.
2. Vishnu – Preserver of the world.
Peace-loving god and sustainer of life.
3. Krishna – Considered a leader, hero,
protector, philosopher, teacher and
friend all combined into one.
4. Rama – Symbol of chivalry and virtue
and embodiment of truth.
5. Hanuman – Worshiped as a symbol of
physical strength, perseverance, and
6. Ganesha – He is the god of
knowledge, wisdom, and wealth. He
is the lord of success and destroyer of
evil. He is the remover of obstacles.
 Originated
Northern India
around the
Indus River
It is still mainly
present in Asia,
particularly India,
where it remains
as the main
 There are also a
significant number
of followers in
Africa and
Northern America,
but with regards to
total population
size, the numbers
and minimal.
 There
are approximately 806 million
worldwide followers of Hinduism, making it
the world’s third most popular religion.
Hinduism, for the most part stayed in India, as it is an ethnic religion,
however at the beginning in the first half of the 1st millennium CE, many of
the early kingdoms in Southeast Asia adopted and adapted specific Hindu
texts, theologies, rituals, architectural styles, and forms of social organization
that suited their historical and social conditions.
It is unknown whether this presence was from slow immigration and
settlement by prominent Indians or from visits to Indians by Southeast Asians
who took elements of Indian culture back home.
Hindu and Buddhist traders, priests, and, occasionally, princes traveled to
Southeast Asia from India in the first few centuries of the Common Era and
eventually settled there.
The religion accommodated
spirituality and provided a
satisfying conduct for ordinary
The religion allowed many
people to retain older beliefs
and ceremonies.
It reached out to all different
people in society. It gave
people in lower castes hope
for a better time in lives to
come if they behaved well and
it gave upper-caste people,
including the brahamans, the
opportunity to be rewarded
with Moksha if they behaved
There are 2 main categories of Hindu
Shruti (that which is heard):
- The Vedas: Aryan hymns
originally transmitted orally but
later recorded in sacred books.
They cover a range of subjects,
encompassing everything from
nature to everyday life and
behavior. They serve to guide
Hindus in their daily life.
- Upanishads: Epic poems that
consider the nature of the
individual soul (Atman) and the
universal soul (Brahman). Reveals
Hindu’s belief in reincarnation.
2. Smriti (that which is remembered):
- The Smrutis – legal and ethical texts
- The Purans - A collection of ancient tales about the different incarnations and the
lives of saints.
- Ramayana – The story of Rama and his devoted wife Sita. The poem is about how
good will always triumph over evil, as Rama and Sita serve as role models for the
perfect husband and wife.
- Mahabharata – Tells the story of war between two branches of family. It serves to
emphasize Hindu values of honor, love, and social duty.
* Bhagavad Gita – Tells how one must do their duty even when it is difficult and
 Home
Most worship is an individual act so most worship
is done at home
Shrines with an image or icon
Shrines can be an entire room or a small alter
The shrine is where they pray and make offerings
 Temple
Called Mahdir
Usually visited on the weekends or for festivals
A priest typically recites the Vedas to the
worshippers gathered
Head of household
 Originally were the only ones who could read
holy scriptures according to their caste
 Controlled their wives
Their traditional role is to be a wife and
mother and take care of the household
 This role has evolved over the past fifty years
 They now can take part in more religious
rituals, read all holy scriptures, and become
female gurus
 Many still follow traditional roles while others
take advantage of the new opportunities
 Varanasi
Home of Lord Shiva
Most important pilgrimage site
 Ganges
Holiest river because Varanasi is located right
next to the river
 Diwali,
Celebrates the victory of good over evil
It symbolizes the renewal of hope, friendship,
and goodwill
Celebrated with lights and fireworks for five days
 Krishra
Festival of Lights
Janmashtami (Krishra Jayanti)
Celebrates the birth of Krishra who is one of the
most popular gods
Krishra is believed to be an incarnation of Vishnu
It is a 48 hour celebration with singing and
Many Hindus do not sleep and some fast the first
 Navaratri
(Nine Nights)
Symbolizes and celebrates the triumph of good
over evil
Dedicated to Durga, the Mother Goddess
She battled the demon Mahishasura for nine days
and nights and was victorious
It is celebrated through dancing and feasts
The nine days also symbolizes the nine days out
of the year that Durga was given permission from
Shiva to visit her mother
Many people try to return home during this
Holi (The Festival of Colors)
Originally welcomed spring and was a festival of
fertility and harvest
 Now it celebrates several legends
 The main one is the legend of Prahalad and Holika
which is another good triumphs evil legend
Prahalad was the son of the demon king Hiranyakashyap,
however Prahalad was faithful to Vishnu. The demon king
tried to kill his son several times but he failed every
time. He then asked his sister, Holika, to kill his son. She
failed too and died in the process. Prahalad then kills his
father with the help of Vishnu and rules as king.
 Creation
Everyone has an atman which is a human soul
All atmans are a part of brahman which is the
world’s soul
All atmans are reincarnated until moksha is
 End
times story
The atman is in an endless
cycle of reincarnation
The only way to break this
cycle is to achieve Moksha
Moksha is becoming one with
the Brahman
This can be achieved through
performing duties according to
a person’s caste, yoga of
action, devotion to a deity, and
Most important commands
Duty to a person’s caste is the most important
Dharma is another word for duty
Failure to follow dharma or other poor actions results
in karma
Too much bad karma results in reincarnation in a
lower caste
Good karma results in reincarnation in a higher caste
and eventually Moksha
Purpose of life
Follow dharma
 Achieve Moksha
Very abstract style
 Majority of art was based on the Gods
 Initially was not understood outside of India
 Paintings and drawings of Gods were seen
as monsters
Incorporated human figures
 Symbolism is present in temples
The central shrine is symbolism for the heart
The towers represent the journey up towards
The land the temples are built on is carefully
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Cordeaux. “Hinduism.” Religion for Schools. Dec. 2001. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.
Das, Subhamoy. “Top 10 Hindu Deities.” 2012. Web. 14 Oct.
Ham, Jara Van. “Women’s Roles in Hinduism”. Mahavidya. 2008. Web. 16
Oct. 2012
“Hindu Art”. Hindu Wisdom. 28 October, 2008. Web. 15 Oct. 2012.
"Hinduism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 15 Oct. 2012
“History of Hinduism”. Famento. 2009. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.
Religion Facts. Dreamweaver, 21 Dec. 2012. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.
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“The Geography of Hinduism.” 25 Aug. 1999. Web. 14 Oct. 2012.
“Timeline of Hinduism”. Religion Facts. 2012. Web. 16 Oct. 2012.
Eight Vishnu (1) -
Hindu Culture (2) -
Aryan Migration (3) -
Shiva (6) -
Krishna (6) -
Rama (7) -
Hanuman (7) -
Vishnu (7) -
India (8) -
Map (9) -
Chart (10) -
Globe (11) -
Map Spread (12)
Caste System (13) -
Vedas (14) -
Upanishads (14) -
The Purans (15) -
Ramayana Cartoon (15) -
Mahabharata Cartoon (15) -
Temple (16) -
Alter Picture (16) -
Wedding Picture (16) -
Varanasi City (18)-
Ganges River (18)-
Diwali with Children (19)-
Diwali Lights (19) -
Krishra Dancing (19)-
Battle (20)-
Durga and Shiva (20)-
Holi Celebration (21)-
Holika and Prahalad (21)-
Atman (22)-
Reincarnation (23)-
Prayer (24)-
Elephant God (25)-