Chapter 1 - Cengage Learning

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Transcript Chapter 1 - Cengage Learning

CJ

Chapter 1 Criminal Justice Today

© 2011 Cengage Learning

Learning Outcomes

LO1: Define crime and identify the different types of crime.

LO2: Outline the three levels of law enforcement.

LO3: List the essential elements of the corrections system.

LO4: Explain the difference between the formal and informal criminal justice processes.

LO5: Contrast the crime control and due process models.

© 2011 Cengage Learning

LO

1

Define crime and identify the different types of crime.

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Learning Outcome 1

• What is crime?

“a wrong against society proclaimed by law and, if committed under certain circumstances, punishable by society.” • Different societies can have vastly different ideas of what constitutes a crime.

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Learning Outcome 1

• The Consensus Model

Assumes that a diverse group of people have similar morals and share an ideal of what is “right” and “wrong.”

Crime are acts that violate this shared value system and are deemed harmful to society.

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Learning Outcome 1

• The Conflict Model

Assumes that society is so diverse that members do not share moral attitudes.

The most politically powerful members of society have the most influence on criminal law and impose their value system on the rest of the community.

Crimes are defined by whichever group holds power at a given time.

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Learning Outcome 1

• An Integrated Definition of Crime

Punishable under criminal law, as determined by the majority, or in some cases, by a powerful minority.

Considered an offense against society as a whole and prosecuted by public officials, not by victims and their relatives or friends.

Punishable by statutorily determined sanctions that bring about the loss of personal freedom or life.

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Learning Outcome 1

• Criminal behavior can be grouped into six categories:

Violent crime

Property crime

Public order crime

White collar crime

Organized crime

High-tech crime

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Learning Outcome 1

• Violent Crime

Crimes against persons.

D our perspectives on crime.

Includes: • • • • Murder Sexual assault Assault and battery Robbery

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Learning Outcome 1

• Property Crime

The most common form of criminal activity.

The goal of the offender is some form of economic gain or to damage property.

Includes: • • • • Larceny/theft Burglary Motor vehicle theft Arson

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Learning Outcome 1

• Public Order Crimes

Behavior that is outlawed because it violates shared social values.

Also referred to as

Includes: • • • • Public drunkenness Prostitution Gambling Illicit drug use victimless crime .

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Learning Outcome 1

• White Collar Crime

Business related offenses.

Illegal act(s) committed to obtain personal or business advantage.

White collar crime costs U.S. businesses as much as $994 billion a year.

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Learning Outcome 1

Organized Crime

– – – –

Illegal acts by illegal organizations (often violent.

Usually geared toward satisfying a public demand for unlawful goods and services.

Implies a conspiratorial and illegal relationship among a number of people engaged in unlawful acts. Includes: • • • Loan sharking Gambling Prostitution

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Learning Outcome 1

• High-Tech Crime

Also referred to as cyber crimes .

Includes: • • • Selling pornographic material online Cyberstalking Hacking

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Learning Outcome 1

The Criminal Justice System The interlocking network of law enforcement agencies, courts, and corrections institutions designed to enforce criminal laws.

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Learning Outcome 1

• The Purpose of the Criminal Justice System

To control crime

To prevent crime

To provide and maintain justice

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The Structure of the Criminal Justice System Federalism – government powers are shared by the national government and the states.

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LO

2

Outline the three levels of law enforcement.

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Learning Outcome 2

• Local and County

County sheriff – chief law enforcement officer of most counties.

Responsible for the “nuts and bolts”: • • • Investigations Patrol activities Keeping the peace

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• •

Learning Outcome 2

State

– – – –

State police Highway patrols Fire marshals Fish, game, wildcraft wardens Federal

– – – –

Anti-terrorism FBI Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Almost every federal agency has some kind of police power.

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Learning Outcome 2

• Courts

The US has a dual court system – two independent judicial systems, one at federal level and one at state level.

Criminal court responsible for determining guilt or innocence of suspects.

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LO

3

List the essential elements of the corrections system.

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Learning Outcome 3

• The Corrections systems includes:

Probation

Jails

Community-based corrections (halfway houses, residential centers, work release centers).

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Learning Outcome 3

• The Corrections systems includes:

Probation

Jails

Community-based corrections (halfway houses, residential centers, work release centers).

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LO

4

Explain the difference between the formal and informal criminal justice processes.

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Learning Outcome 4

• The Formal Criminal Justice Process

Functions as an assembly-line

“a series of routinized operations whose success is gauged primarily by their tendency to pass the case along to a successful conclusion.”

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Learning Outcome 4

• The informal criminal justice process – Based on the use of discretion – the authority to choose between and among alternative courses of action.

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The Wedding Cake Model

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LO

5

Contrast the crime control and due process models.

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Learning Outcome 5

• The crime control model

Law enforcement is necessary to control criminal activity.

Control is difficult and probably impossible.

The system must be quick and efficient.

Police are in a better position than courts to determine guilt.

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Learning Outcome 5

• The due process model

Strives to make it difficult to prove guilt.

Ultimate goal – fairness, not efficiency.

Rejects idea of a criminal justice system with unlimited powers.

Criminal justice system should recognize its own fallibility.

Relies heavily on courts.

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Mastering Concepts Crime Control Model versus Due Process Model

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Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, June 1997), Table 1.1, page 12; and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Prisoners in 2008 Correctional Populations in the United States, 1995 (Washington, D.C.; U.S. Department of Justice, 2009), 2.

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