Layer 1 of the TCP/IP protocol stack

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Transcript Layer 1 of the TCP/IP protocol stack

Layer 1 of the TCP/IP protocol stack: Network Access Layer (NAL). Functions, performed on the layer. МАС address in Ethernet networks.

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TCP/IP

The Internet Protocol Suite (commonly known as TCP/IP) is the set of communications protocols used for the Internet and other similar networks.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) The Internet Protocol Suite may be viewed as a set of layers. Each layer solves a set of problems involving the transmission of data, and provides a well-defined service to the upper layer protocols based on using services from some lower layers.

The TCP/IP model consists of four layers. This layer architecture is often compared with the seven-layer OSI Reference Model. From lowest to highest, these are • the Network Access Layer, • the Internet Layer, • the Transport Layer, • and the Application Layer  The TCP/IP Network Access Layer can encompass the functions of two lower layers of theOSI reference Model: Data Link, and Physical.

Data Link Layer

 Prepare Network layer packets for transmission and to control access to the physical media.

Supporting & Connecting to upper layer services

The Data Link layer provides a means for exchanging data over a common local media. The Data Link layer performs two basic services:  Allows the upper layers to access the media using techniques such as framing  Controls how data is placed onto the media and is received from the media using techniques such as media access control and error detection  The Data Link layer is responsible for the exchange of frames between nodes over the media of a physical network.

Connecting upper layer services to the media

 In many cases, the Data Link layer is embodied as a physical entity, such as an Ethernet network interface card (NIC), which inserts into the system bus of a computer and makes the connection between running software processes on the computer and physical media.

MAC

 The technique used for getting the frame on and off media is called the media access control method.

 Media Access Control (MAC) provides Data Link layer addressing and delimiting of data according to the physical signaling requirements of the medium and the type of Data Link layer protocol in use. MAC:  Address the frame  Mark the beginning and ending of the frame

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Media Access Control Methods

There are two basic media access control methods for shared media: Controlled - Each node has its own time to use the medium

When one device places a frame on the media, no other device can do so until the frame has arrived at the destination and has been processed by the destination.

Contention-based - All nodes compete for the use of the medium (CSMA)

When the device attempting to transmit sees that the media is busy, it will wait and try again after a short time period.

Media access control protocols for non-shared media require little or no control before placing frames onto the media. Such is the case for point-to-point topologies.  Half-Duplex  Full-Duplex

Logical vs. Physical Toplogy

The Frame

 Header - Contains control information, such addressing (48-bit MAC)  Data - The packet from the Network layer  Trailer - Contains control information added to the end of the PDU, such addressing (48-bit MAC)

Physical Layer

 controls how data is placed on the communication media  encode the binary digits that represent Data Link layer frames into signals and to transmit and receive these signals across the physical media  create the electrical, optical, or microwave signal that represents the bits in each frame

Physical Layer Fundamental Principles

The three fundamental functions of the Physical layer are:  The physical components  Data encoding  Signaling

Data Carrying Capacity

Data transfer : Bandwidth, Throughput and Goodput

Types of Physical Media