Animal Interactions Responses to the biotic environment INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE Competition Predator-prey Parasite-host CO-OPERATIVE Mutualism Commensalism Antibiosis Competition Individuals of different species vie for the same resource in an ecosystem (e.g.

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Transcript Animal Interactions Responses to the biotic environment INTERSPECIFIC AGGRESSIVE Competition Predator-prey Parasite-host CO-OPERATIVE Mutualism Commensalism Antibiosis Competition Individuals of different species vie for the same resource in an ecosystem (e.g.

Animal Interactions
Responses to the biotic environment
INTERSPECIFIC
AGGRESSIVE
Competition
Predator-prey
Parasite-host
CO-OPERATIVE
Mutualism
Commensalism
Antibiosis
Competition
Individuals of different species vie for the same resource in an
ecosystem (e.g. food or living space).
Gause’s principle – no two species with exactly identical
niches can co-exist for long in the same place
competitive exclusion (one species outcompetes the other)
OR
adaptive radiation (one species adapts to a different niche)
Predator-prey relationships
• Evolution  physiological & behavioural adaptations
• Predator becomes a more successful predator
• Prey becomes better at escaping predation
Birds of prey have developed
extremely good eyesight to
spot prey from a distance
PREDATORS 1 – PREY 0
Foxes are fast and quick-witted
PREDATORS 2 – PREY 0
Lynx vs rabbit
PREDATORS 3 – PREY 0
Lions hunt co-operatively
PREDATORS 4 – PREY 0
Speed is very advantageous for prey animals........
PREDATORS 3 – PREY 100
Methods of getting food
Let the prey come to you
• Traps
• Webs
• Bait
• Ambush
• Sieves
Methods of getting food
Move after the prey
• speed
• teamwork
• swarms
• tools
• appendages
Parasite-host relationships
Mosquito
Ectoparasite
• Endoparasite
Parasitoid wasp lays eggs on caterpillar
INTERSPECIFIC
AGGRESSIVE
Competition
Predator-prey
Parasite-host
CO-OPERATIVE
Mutualism
Commensalism
Antibiosis
Mutualism
• Bees pollinate flowers
Mutualism
• Tickbirds eat ticks
Commensalism
• Remoras attach themselves to sharks and hitch a
ride, also eat leftovers
Antibiosis
• Large trees shading out smaller undergrowth
• Animals trampling down the homes of smaller
animals
• Human sewage disposal
“Go outside to do your business”