C05 Motivations and purposes for women attending BSE training

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Transcript C05 Motivations and purposes for women attending BSE training

Motivations and purposes for
women attending BSE training
program: A qualitative study
Rea-Jeng Yang, RN, PhD, Associate Professor,
National Taipei University of Nursing and Health
Science; [email protected]
Published in BMC Women’s Health, 10(23), 2010
 Breast cancer is a major threat to
women’s health
 BSE has shown that cancer may be
discovered anytime
 BSE is still advocated by some health
 Less understanding about the
motivation of learning BSE for women
To explore why women want to
learn BSE skills and how women
make decision to learn this
 A descriptive study
 Sixty-six women aged 27-50 were recruited
 Individual and focused group in-depth
 Thematic analysis and constant comparison
techniques for data analysis
 Participation of BSE training was a
purposive action
 Satisfaction of self-preservation emerged as
the central theme
 Common entering motivation was related to
the risk perception
 A ladder motivation model was constructed
to explain these participants’ motivations
Illness monitoring
Having breasts lesions
Concerning of the breast lesion
Multiple monitor strategy
Health maintaining
Conscious of risk
Limitation of medical
Benefit of BSE
Confusion clarifying
Breast mass
Resources utilizing
Lower risk perception
Passive attending
Suspicious to efficacy
Uncertainty of risk
Consciousness of risk
Figure 1. Ladder of motivation
Satisfaction of self-preservation
 “I wanted to learn it and take selfcare.” (AC)
 “I want to more understand my
body.” (DC)
 “I hope I can get some correct
information at this program.” (BA)
 “I think, if I learn the skills I can do it
often by myself and feel peace in my
mind.” (CA)
to control by self
Health maintaining
 Conscious of risk
 Limitation of medicine
 Benefit of BSE
Conscious of risk
 “I am a high-risk person, because that my
mother and my older sister had breast
cancers.” (CB)
 “To my surprise, a colleague who younger
than me (less than 28 years) was
diagnosed a breast cancer. (CH)
 “The first, I attended this training due to
my large breasts. I have heard that the
enormous breast will increase the risk of
breast cancer.” (CF)
 “the reports by media with Mrs. Kao…”
Limitation of medicine
 “I felt that is necessary to have a mammography.
But I also have heard that the mammography has
its limitation, and the correctness is not enough.”
 “I had a breast examination by doctor, but he only
took less than 3 minutes.” (CK)
 “I felt that the doctor did a breast examination for
me without concern, he did without standards. In
general, the doctor depended on the sonogram as
a principal screening equipment. However, Mrs.
Kao had died of breast cancer, although she had
regular mammography and sonogram.” (CJ)
 “I felt discomfort able that I had ever done a
breast examination by the doctor. Because of his
facial expressions let me felling disgusting. I do
not want to see the rotten doctor anymore.” (CF)
Benefit of BSE
 “My friend discovered the breast cancer by herself
touching...” (CC)
 “The Vietnamese maiden who found the lump in my
mother’s breast, as she assisted a bathing for my mother.
She did a favor for my mother. BSE, it is good chance
for me to learning the skills. I think that I can do it often
by myself with my own feelings that might be peace of
my mind.” (CA)
 “I want to say, that I did BSE just for health but did not
intend for augmenting my breasts. The incentive of
health still is strong (laugh). By the way, I have
suggested the skills to my friends, for example, I talked
to my boy-friend I can teach his sister, since us all of are
women, we have to protect ourselves…” (CG)
The four motivation patterns had
interwoven with personal and social
1. Personal factors influencing entering
into BSE training
2. Social factors influencing the practice
of BSE
1. Personal factors influencing
entering into BSE training
1-1 With valuable to BSE
1-2 Having risk perception
1-3 Desire to have self-controlled
Social factors
influencing BSE entering
 Legitimacy of strip off
 Social history
 Understanding the different risk assessments
women rely on in their decision making
 It would aid researchers and health professionals
to better understand alternative ways of dealing
with breast health
Practical Implications
 Programs should focus on training women to
perform proficient BSE and thereby improve
their sense of self-efficacy of BSE
 Understanding the psychological processes of
women’s perception and judgments should aide
health professionals are better placed to
provide meaningful services
Put Yourself in Trained Hands
Your Own!
Legitimacy of strip off
 be struggling with social norms
 in graphic stories of embarrassment,
sexual connotations and vulnerability
* felt embarrassment, because her breast
is a small and plat one
* felt exposure to strangers enables them
to gain some power over her in the
form of criticism
 They convinced self that breast
examination is a proper issue, and a
female professional will conduct this
educational training
Social history
 women described their decision of
entering BSE training was aroused by
media with special events for breast
 For example, as a case suffer from
breast cancer, the news typically
constitutes a persuasive message
called a fear appeal—a line of
argument that to be must acknowledge
the severity of the threat.