Construction - Faculty of Engineering Technology & Research
Transcript Construction - Faculty of Engineering Technology & Research
- Mr. Shivang Dabhi
-Miss Ankita Upadhyay
Based on structure, the buildings are
divided into three groups :
Load-bearing wall structure
RCC framed structure
1. LOAD – BEARING WALL STRUCTURE :
In this system of construction, loads from the roof slab or trusses and
floors are transmitted through walls to the firm soil below the ground.
Therefore, walls of upper storeys will have less thickness than the walls of
lower storeys, consequently the carpet area reduces on the ground floor
compared to upper floor. This type of construction is adopted at places,
where hard strata is available at shallow depths. Generally, this type of
system is suited for simple building of 2 storey construction. The materials
used are stone, bricks or blocks, bound together with cement or lime
mortar. For floors and roof slab, RCC can be used. The structural elements
such as beams, trusses, etc. rest directly on the walls. The floor rest on the
2. RCC framed structure :
An RCC Framed Structure is an assembly of slabs, beams, columns and foundation
connected to one another so that it behaves as one unit. It is a methodology, which
enables the construction of tall buildings and building with stilts. Majority of urban
structures and multistoried buildings are built as RCC framed structures. In an RCC
framed structure, the load is transferred from a slab to the beams then to the columns
and further to lower columns and finally to the foundation which in turn transfers it to
the soil. The walls in such structures are constructed after the frame is ready and are
not meant to carry any load. As against this, in a load bearing structure, the loads are
directly transferred to the soil through the walls, which are capable of carrying them.
3. Composite structure :
In many buildings and bridges, it is common to have a concrete slab supported by steel
beams. If the steel beams are connected to the concrete slab in such a way that the
two act as one unit, the beam is called as composite beam.
Composite beams are similar to concrete T-beams where the flange of the T-beam is
made of concrete slab and the web of the T-beam is made of the steel section.
Composite beam has the advantage that the concrete in the slab takes all or most of
the compression (for which it is best suited), while the steel beam takes all the tension
in the overall system
Design loads :a structure is designed considering the following loads :
Dead Load (D.L.)
Live load (L.L.)
Wind load (W.L.)
Earthquake load (E.L.)
1. Dead load (D.L.) :
It consists of self weight of different parts of the building like floor, roof, walls, plaster,
doors, windows etc.
Dead load of any part of building is calculated by multiplying its volume by unit weight
of the material. Unit weights of the common building materials are given below :
Unit Weight kN/m3
2. Live load (L.L.) :
Live loads consists of moving of variable loads due to people or occupants, their
furniture, temporary stores, machinery etc.
It is considered to be uniformly distributed static load acting on the area.
The minimum live load to be considered for design depends upon the type og building
as shown in table :
Minimum live load kN/m3
Residential buildings, hospitals
Office, small work space
Banks, reading rooms
Assembly halls, restaurants, classrooms
Warehouse, workshop, factory
For multistoried buildings, the probability of all the floors to be loaded simultaneously
is very low. Hence, a load reduction factor is applied in designing columns, walls and
foundations depending upon the number of floors carried by the member.
Numbers of floors carried by member
(column, wall, foundation)
Reduction in live load
6 or more
3. Wind load (W.L.) :
Wind load is considered in design in case of tall buildings,
It is expressed in terms of basic wind pressure which is an equivalent static pressure in
the direction of wind.
P = K*V*V
where, P= wind pressure in kN/m*m
K= coefficient depending upon wind velocity, size
and shape of structure.
V= Wind velocity of km/hr
4. Earthquake load :
The earthquake load acts in the horizontal direction.
Earthquake load is calculated as under :
Earthquake force = m.∝ = (w/g)*∝
Where, m= mass of the building
w= total weight of structure
g= gravitational acceleration
∝= acceleration due to earthquake
= (1/20) g to (1/10) g
Building Components :
Wall & columns
Roofs & slabs
Plinth :- the part of the structure lying above the ground and below the ground and
below the ground floor level is known as plinth.
Substructure :- A Part of the structure lying below the ground surface is known as
Function of building components :
1) slab :- it acts as the roof of the building. It protect the building and its occupants from
rain, heat etc.
2) Walls :- they divide the building space into various rooms. They support slabs and
beams. Walls safely transmit the loads coming on them from beams and slabs to the
3)Plinth :- the plinth resists in transmitting the load of the structure to the foundation
plinth resists the entry of rain water inside the building.
4)Column :- it transmit heavy loads of super structure to the foundation.
5)Footing :- it safely transmits the dead loads, live loads, wind loads from a building to the
subsoil. It anchor the structure to the ground.
“Different types of foundations”
1. pile foundations
2. caissons or well foundation
3. coffer dams
Shallow foundations :
when the depth of foundation is less than or equal to
the width of foundation, it is called shallow foundation.
1) Spread footing :
A spread footing is provided to support an individual column. A spread footing is
circular, square or rectangular slab of uniform thickness . Sometimes it is stepped or
haunched to spread the load over a large area.
2) Strip footing :
A strip footing is provided for a load bearing
wall. A strip footing is also provided for a row
of columns which are so closely spaced that
their spread footing overlap eachother. A strip
footing is also known as continuous footing.
3) Strap footing :
A strap footing consists of two isolated footings connected with a structural strap or a
lever. The strap connects the two footing such that they behave as one unit. The strap
simply acts as a connecting beam and does not take any soil reaction.
A strap footing is also known as cantilever footing.
4) Combined footing :
A combined footing supports two columns. A combined footing is provided in the
following situations :
i. when two columns are so close to each other that their individual footings would
ii. When the property line is so close to one column that a spread footing would be
eccentrically within the property line.
4) Mat or raft foundation :
A mat or raft foundation is a large slab supporting a
number of columns and walls under the entire
A mat is required when the allowable soil pressure is
low or where the columns and walls are so close that
individual footing would overlap or nearly touch
Mat foundation are useful in reducing the different
settlements on nonhomogeneous soil or where there is
a large variation in the loads on individual columns.
Grillage foundation :
This type of foundation is used to transmit heavy
loads from steel columns to the soil having low
bearing power. This type of arrangement avoids
deep excavations and provides necessary area at
the base to reduce the intensity of pressure.
Grillage foundation is made up of rolled steel
joists, known as grillage beams provided in
single or double tiers. In double tier
arrangement the top tier is laid perpendicular to
the bottom tier.
Pile foundation :
Pile foundation is a deep foundation in which the loads are transferred to deep firm
strata by means of vertical members which may be of tumber, concrete or steel.
Pile foundation are used in the following conditions :
When the soil below ground surface is very weak.
When load coming from structure is very large and distribution is
When it is required to transmit structural loads through deep water to
a firm strata.
When structure is to be constructed on sea shore.
When deep drainage lines or canals are passing close to the structure.
Pile foundation are used to resists horizontal forces in addition to
vertical loads in earth retaining structures.
Pile foundation are preferred where soil is expansive or collapsible.
Open cassion or well foundation :
An open cassion is a box of timber,
metal, reinforced concrete or
masonry which open at both
the top bottom and is used for
buildings and bridge foundations.
Cross-section of a building :
R.C.C. lintel with chajja :
Buildings bye-laws :
Building bye laws are the restriction laid down by the municipal, town
planning or revenue authorities on construction and planning of different
types of buildings.
Necessity of building bye-laws :
to curb the haphazard growth of towns and cities.
to ensure proper air, light, ventilation, parking, sanitation, safety etc. to the people.
To facilitate future use of land, widening of streets, controlling the ribbon
development in the area.
To provide safety to human beings who work on or live in the house against fire,
noise, structure failure, health hazard etc.
To reduce pollution in the area.
To ensure that every citizen will receive facilities like water supply, sanitation,
ventilation, electric supply etc.
Various building bye-laws :
Built – up area :
II. Carpet – area :
III. Floor space index (FSI) :
V. Projection in margins :
VI.Minimum room areas :
VII.Building height :
Built – up area :
This is the area useful to the occupant of the house. It includes any area built
up on, below or above ground floor. It includes main structure, cellar, out
house, attached garage, servants room, bathroom, water closet etc.
Plot area size in square
Max built up area in %
50 to 90
91 to 200
201 to 500
501 to 1000
1001 and above
Carpet area :
It is the area of a building where usually carpet can be laid if desired. From the
plinth area, deductions of wall area, passages, stairs-case lift-shaft, kitchen,
store, garage, sanitary,-shaft, bathroom and W.C. are made.
Floor Space index (FSI) :
It is the ratio of combined gross area of construction on all floors to total
Normally a FSI of 1.0 to 1.2 is very common for small cities.
Usually it is taken as 1.2 in residential areas.
In big cities this value may be deferred. A FSI up to 1.9 is also allowed in
cities where land cost is very high.
These are the open space required to provide sufficient,
isolation, protection, ventilation and air circulation in the area.
These are space for access and other requirements of free
movements around the building even for repair and
Set back :
The land contained in front margins belongs to the owner of the
property, but he is prohibited from constructing any thing in setback portion. The width of set-back varies from 1.5 m for
congested street to 6.0 m for new underdeveloped area. The setback is also referred as a building line.
Projection in margins :
This is the provision for accommodating cantilever projection
from the outer walls of a structure. There are some restrictions
like the projected structural part should be provided with no slab
or roof. Some of them are :
A canopy of 3 m width in margins should always be atleast 2.4 m
above the ground level.
Maximum allowable length of projection from the wall of the
building in the margins are restricted.
Minimum Room areas :
This provision is to satisfy the functional requirement of important component part of
in square meters dimension in of side Meter of height
1.35 to 4.5
W.C. or urinal
1.2 at minimum
<1/3 of room
Building height :
This restriction is to take care of the space for the comfortable use of the unit. One cannot
walk in a room if slab is not located at least at height equivalent to height of a person . To
make use of the component part this specifications are adhered. Some of important
provisions are listed below :
Clear floor height should be minimum 2.7 m
Clear room height of air conditioned room should be minimum 2.4 m
Clear height of a roof should be minimum 2.4 m
Clear floor height of mezzanine floor should be minimum 2.0 m
Clearance for stair cabin, cellar should be minimum 2.0 m
Clear floor height for a business building should be minimum 3.0 m
Plinth height should be minimum 45 cm for the bath and water closets.
Plot size in m*m
Maximum built up area %
Maximum no. of storeys
G.F. + 2
50 < 100
G.F. + 2
100 < 150
G.F. + 2
150 < 300
G.F. + 2
More than 300
G.F. + 2
Damp proof course
Reinforced cement concrete
Plain cement concrete
Brick bat lime concrete
Brick bat cement concrete
Rain water gutter
Cold water cistern
Hot water cistern