Early Civilizations of the Andes

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Transcript Early Civilizations of the Andes

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* * 4,500 miles from Colombia to Chile * Many peaks over 20,000’ * Steep, rocky, poor soil * Hot and dry during the day * Very cold at night

* * Settlements on the Coastal Plain * Andes Mountains, climate, environment make travel, farming difficult * Harsh deserts lie along Pacific coast * However, coastal areas with rivers have good soil; are settled 3600-2500 BC * Around 3000 BC agriculture starts; by 1800 BC communities arise

* * Chavin-first influential culture in South America (mother culture of South America) * Arises in highland region of Peru; flourishes from 900 BC to 200 BC * No evidence of political or economic organization * RELIGIOUS civilization * Gods-part human and part animal

* * Named for major ruin, Chavin de Huantar * City has pyramids, plazas, and massive earth mounds * Chavin culture spreads over north and central Peru * Influences other cultures * Religious images reflected in stone carvings, pottery and textiles * Religious centers featuring pyramids, plazas and giant earthen mounds

* Would the Chavin culture have been more influential if it had arisen along the Peruvian coast?

* Yes-Travel would have been easier.

* No-People made the difficult pilgrimages despite the rugged terrain.

* * Nazca-culture on dry, southern coast of Peru * Flourishes from 200 BC to 600 AD * They build irrigation systems and make beautiful pottery and textiles

* * 1,000 puzzling designs on land—images of animals, geometric shapes and mythological beings

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* * 1. Please the gods?

* 2. Lines indicated where surface water entered the plain and marked elevated land between ancient riverbeds?

* 3. A map that marks the course of underground aquifers?

* 4. Straight lines may have led to ceremonial sites?

* * One of the driest regions on earth * Ground is flat and stony * Wind rarely carries away the soil * Minimal erosion

* * In ceramic and textile design, Nazca artisans depict the taking of human heads.

* * Moche-culture that thrives on northern coast of Peru * Flourishes from 100 to 700 AD * Images on Moche tombs and pottery reveal how they lived * GOLD and silver jewelry; musical instruments, woven clothing; doctors, soldiers * Neither Moche religion nor fall of culture are understood * No written language

* * Moche build large irrigation systems to water wide range of crops * Corn, beans, potatoes, squash, peanuts, fish, ducks, guinea pigs, deer, crayfish

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* What can be inferred from the discovery of Nazca shrunken heads and the depiction of soldiers on Moche pottery?

* Both the Nazca and the Moche had enemies; some of their people were warriors.

* Identify similarities in the Chavin, Nazca, and Moche cultures.

* Successfully adapted to a harsh, rugged environment * All built flourishing civilizations known for their art styles and beautiful crafts.

* 1. Prospering agricultural villages and surpluses of food helped lead to the rise of civilizations. Give some examples from the rise of civilizations in the Americas * Food supply—population growth—settled communities—skill and social classes *

* 2. Advanced Cities: * Monte Alban, San Lorenzo, La Venta * Specialized Workers: * Urban Design, Craftspeople, Sculptors, Weavers, Musicians, Doctors * Record Keeping: * Calendars; Zapotec writing * Complex Institutions: * Trade Networks, Ruling Classes, Ceremonies * * Advanced Technology: * Irrigation

* 3. As the economy becomes more specialized, social classes begin to emerge. Describe the social structure in Olmec culture.

* Ruling class (priests to nobles), peasant farmers, artisans and traders (middle class)

* 4. As populations grew, religion became more organized. Describe some religious traditions that were followed by some of the earliest American civilizations.

* Jaguar spirits, nature gods, temples

* 5. Identify other ways in which the rise of civilization in the Americas parallels the rise of ancient civilizations in different parts of the world.

* Learned to control environment; created solutions to environmental problems; used resources to build thriving communities; applied organized cooperation and leadership to massive building projects