Leiter-3 Training Power Pointx

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Transcript Leiter-3 Training Power Pointx

Published by Stoelting Co.

Presented by Katy Genseke, Psy.D.

 The original Leiter was published by Russell Leiter in 1940, although he began work on it in 1927.  It is a nonverbal Intelligence Test which has been widely used on populations of the deaf, hard of hearing, mentally handicapped, autistic, ESL, speech and language deficits, motor-involved, brain injured, and intellectually superior.

◦ The Leiter is a measure of intelligence with fair, cross-cultural applicability. ◦  The original publication of the Leiter consisted of 68 subtests for examinees 2-18 years of age. The 1948 Edition of the Leiter, published by Stoelting, represents Dr. Leiter’s last revision of his performance scale.

 The Leiter-R revision was standardized nationally on over 2,000 children and adolescents and expanded the age range to 20 years, 11 months. It was authored by Dr. Gale Roid and Dr. Lucy Miller.

 The Leiter-R has been widely recognized as one of the best nonverbal cognitive assessments.

 Examiner feedback from this version did impact the redesign of the Leiter-3.

◦ The newly published Leiter 3 was also authored by Dr.s Roid and Miller, and has new updates and changes. Standardized on 1,603 nationally stratified individuals.  The test is more streamlined, with less subtests required to gain the nonverbal IQ, and also new subtests for the Attention Divided and a neuropsych screener.

 It also went back to the block and frame design of the original Leiter.

 Standardized on :          Significant Communication Disorders, Autism Cognitive Delay ELL, ESL Learning Disability ADHD Hearing Impaired Motor Impaired Various adult brain disorders, including Dementia, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s

 Definition of Intellectual Ability on Leiter-3    Operational and empirical rather than theoretical and is the general ability to perform complex nonverbal mental manipulations related to conceptualization, inductive reasoning and visualization. Included are spatial perception, nonverbal problem solving, attention to visual detail, classification of visual stimuli, and the relationships between and among stimuli.

Memory and attention are not included in the general intelligence model, although to some extent, attention and memory can be thought of as substrates that are foundational to all test-taking performance.

     4 Total Subtests required to calculate the Nonverbal IQ.

A 5 th subtest is included, as a substitute, in case one of the four are spoiled.

2 Subtests required to calculate the Nonverbal Memory.

2 Total Subtests required to calculate the Processing Speed. 1 Nonverbal neuropsychological screener.

    Subtest1: Figure Ground (FG) Subtest 2: Form Completion (FC) Subtest 3: Classification/Analogies (CA) Sequential Order (SO)   Optional: Visual Patterns (VP)

   Excellent reliability coefficients on certain subtests are the basis of the decision to retain the main subtest (FG, FC, CA, SO) in the Leiter-3.

The authors of the Leiter-3 felt strongly that the new edition should be shorter and require less test-administration time than the full battery of the Leiter-R. For this reason, and because of lower psychometric characteristics, Leiter-R subtests such as Picture Context, Paper Folding, and Figure Rotation were not continued into the Leiter-3.

Age Group 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60+ Median Number 187 146 160 155 140 94 120 119 110 88 101 98 85 Reliability Figure Ground .80

.84

.88

.89

.87

.86

.85

.85

.80

.86

.88

.86

.85

.86

Form Completion .89

.89

.92

.94

.91

.86

.71

.86

.67

.92

.84

.77

.85

.86

Classification /Analogies .82

.87

.87

.83

.79

.74

.76

.85

.79

.83

.79

.75

.72

.79

Sequential Order .84

.94

.95

.96

.94

.92

.94

.95

.95

.96

.95

.95

.95

.95

Visual Patterns .88

.82

.71

.83

.78

.69

.70

.78

.71

.86

.74

.74

.84

.78

 Task of basic visual interference, similar to a visual recognition task, but compounded by distractions and enhancements.  Performance on this task was associated with visual closure and correlated with freedom from distractibility.  Performance on this task is related to the cognitive flexibility of the individual, since he/she must shift attention between a discrete figure and a complex background.

 It also requires the individual have adequate visual scanning skills and an effective search strategy.  It requires good inhibition, as impulsivity will result in randomly pointing to similar shapes rather than focusing on the detail embedded in the figures.

 It does require short term visual memory, as well, as the individual must hold on to the mental image on the card while searching for it in the embedded figure on the easel picture.  This subtest lends itself to clinical qualitative observations of process such as perceptual bias to one side of the page, misidentification of objects, perseveration, and noting only the most prominent objects.

Teaching Item 1

Start Ages 3-5 FG-1

Teaching Item 2

Start Ages 6-10

FG-3

Teaching Item 3

Start Ages 11-75+

FG-5

Find 3 of the same figure.

Find one of each of the 3 figures

   This subtest requires organization of disarranged or fragmented pieces. In addition, it entails flexibility as the individual must refer back and forth between parts and the “whole” to arrive at a solution, a process that is mostly deductive.

Working memory permits the individual to hold both the stimuli and possible responses in mind simultaneously, as the images are constructed and deconstructed. Many of the harder items also have and underlying mental rotation component. This subtest requires perceptual scanning, recognition, and the ability to perceive fragmented percepts as wholes.

Teaching Item 1

Start Ages 3-5

FC-1

Teaching Item 2

Still Ages 3-5

FC-3

Teaching Item 3

Start Ages 6-10

FC-6

Teaching Item 4

Teach All Ages Start Point for Ages 11-75+

FC-9

 This subtest evaluates the individual’s ability to shift concepts as well as to use them.  After sorting items, this subtest merges into functional classification where objects which “belong together” because of usage rather than size, shape, or color are grouped.  The relationships are induced from concepts, or elements of the pictures.

   The individual must perceive the element in question, attach meaning to the element, and conceptualize what the relevant features are that the stimuli picture on the easel shares with the response on only one of the blocks. This subtest consists of both representational and non representational reasoning problems which require abstract positional relationships. CA measures the ability of the individual to generate rules out of partial information, and inductively hypothesize what piece would complete the whole pattern. Individuals who are impulsive tend to perform poorly on this subtest because they respond without scanning all possible response blocks, and may focus on the first element they see in common without taking time to analyze the conceptual similarities between elements.

Teaching Item 1

Start Ages 3-5 CA-1

Teaching Item 2

Still Ages 3-5 CA-2

CA-3

Teaching Item 3

Start Ages 6-10 CA-8

Teaching Item 4

Start Ages 11-75+ CA-12

 This subtest requires nonverbal reasoning ability with a focus on rule generation related to problems of seriation or sequential information.

 The individual must understand the relationship between stimuli in order to find the missing elements at the end or in the middle of the series.

 On this subtest, the “whole” is the final pattern which is induced from multiple stimuli.

Teaching Trial 1

Start Ages 3-5

SO-1

SO-2

SO-3

Teaching Item 2

Teaching for Ages 3-10 Start Ages 6-10 SO-4

Teaching Item 3

Start Ages 11-75+ SO-7

      At the youngest age, this subtest evaluates the individual’s basic ability to match visuo-perceptual stimuli with no memory component. This has been described as perceptual acuity, measuring visual discrimination and awareness of spatial orientation. At the youngest age levels, the task is simple, with matching by color or shape and large features being prominent. As the task progresses, attention to detail is required, as the matching dimensions become smaller and less prominent. This task requires the ability to scan, and make visual comparisons between figures.

It also requires basic visualization processes, but also necessitates patience and freedom from impulsivity on the part of the individual, as he/she must check different stimuli against the model as items increase in complexity.

 For individuals 6-75+, this subtest requires an ability to combine deductive reasoning with an ability for conceptual sequencing in symbol patterns.  It requires rule generation as the individual develops hypotheses from the existing stimuli in the pattern.

 This part of the subtest is similar to cognitive tests of fluid reasoning.

Teaching Item 1

Start Ages 3-5

Visual Patterns

Teaching Item 2

Start Ages 6-75+

VP-11

 Consists of 5 subtests  2 Subtests for Nonverbal Memory  2 Subtests for Processing Speed  1 Nonverbal Neuropsychological Screener

 Subtests 6: Attention Sustained  Subtest 7: Forward Memory  Subtest 8: Attention Divided  Subtest 9: Reverse Memory  Subtest 10: Nonverbal Stroop

   This subtest consists of a cancellation task which measures visual prolonged attention, requiring good visual scanning and motoric inhibition on a rapid repetitive motor task (crossing out stimuli). This subtest requires attention and selectivity during an easy task, which does not require new cognitive processing. The score which best discriminates individuals diagnosed with ADHD from individuals without attentional deficits is the ERROR score of this subtest.

Attention Sustained can be found in the Response Booklet

Teaching Trials Ages 3-5

Ages 3-4, only administer the first 2 items.

Age 5, administer all 4 items.

Teaching Trials for Ages 6-75+

 This subtest measures sequential memory span and requires sustained attention and an organized processing style.

 In addition to remembering the sequence of stimuli, the individual must also inhibit the previous sequential information which may be stored.

Teaching Item 1

Start Ages 3-5 FM1

Teaching Item 2 and 3

Continue to teach to ages 3-5 on items FM-2A and FM-2B

Teaching Item 4 and 5

Start Ages 6-10 Continue to teach on both Items FM-3A and FM-3B

Teaching Item 6, 7, and 8

Start Ages 11-75+ Continue to teach on items FM-5A, FM-5B, and FM-5C

 This subtest measures the ability of the individual to hold in active memory two or more ideas simultaneously, and requires the individual to attend to more than one line of information at a time.  The task in Attention Divided was devised to combine two simple conditions and only achieves complexity when both tasks must be attended to simultaneously.

 Flexibility, organization, inhibition, and shifting can all be evaluated during this activity.

 This subtest measures memory span for pictures in reverse order. If individuals rely heavily on concrete thinking or become confused easily, they may have difficulty switching tasks from Forward Memory.

 Reverse Memory is a complex activity requiring the individual to store and juggle information using mental effort that requires good working memory.

Teaching Item 1

Start Ages 3-5

Teaching Items 2 and 3

Start Ages 6-75+ Teach on both RM-3A and RM-3B

    This test was designed to measure “Stroop Interference Effect”- the difference between two tasks where one task presents two stimuli with the same appearance (congruent) and the second task presents the same stimulus with a distracting (incongruent) stimulus. The ability to inhibit responses to the distraction stimuli, and thus reduce cognitive interference, is a valuable skill in school, work, and life.

Low scores indicate that the individual is unusual in overcoming cognitive interference in this type of physical marking and color discrimination. A very high score indicates that the individual is greatly affected by distracting stimuli, has a tendency to lack the ability to inhibit marking of the wrongly-matched colors, and generally is higher in cognitive interference.

The Nonverbal Stroop can be found in the Response Booklet

Color Congruent Trial

Color Incongruent Trial

 The Examiner Rating Scale is composed of 8 components     Attention- Concentration, focus, staying on task, not distracted by noises, persistent-paying attention to detail during testing.

Organization/Impulse Control- Plans before beginning tasks, organizes, inhibits inappropriate actions that delay task completion, not touching test materials unnecessarily, independent task completion.

Activity Level- Maintains high activity level (on task) during testing and does not fidget, gaze elsewhere too much, or gets bored and slows down. Sociability- Interacts positively with examiner, does not withdraw or show hostility or defiance, not careless with materials.

    Energy and Feelings- Shows pleasure, energy instead of fatigue, confidence, cheerfulness or neutral responses, not overly sad or lethargic.

Regulation- No bizarre responses or unrelated ideas and spoken comments, not overly aroused or over reactive, even mood, no large mood swings, no unregulated distracting behaviors (picking, twisting, fidgeting excessively).

Anxiety- Assured, not worried, composed not overwhelmed, calm not agitated.

Sensory Reaction- Normal reactions to outside noises, not distracted by particular stimuli, adapts to transitions between tasks, regulated arousal level in self.

   Cognitive/Social All skills in this composite relate to the motivational and interpersonal skills needed to be successful in work settings, as well as test-performance skills. The individual who scores at a high level on this composite is probably considered hard-working, attentive, focused, high energy, likable, conscientious, organized, and mature for his or her age.   Emotions/Regulations This scale measures adaptability, emotional stability, and regulations (can one regulate their emotional reaction to stimulation or demanding situations)?

 ◦ ◦ ◦ Attention Sustained Total Errors: Because individuals with Attention Deficit or Learning Disorders often have an atypical number of errors, look for cases where the AS Errors scaled score exceeds the scaled score for the AS Total profile score 5 points or more. Also consider if the AS Error score is 7 or below and the AS Total score is 10 or higher.

The particular balance of scaled scores may be diagnostic of some aspects of attention processes, or fundamental skills, such as visual scanning and pencil grip.

 ◦ ◦ ◦ Attention Divided Correct Score Atypical individuals (those with ADHD, Autism, TBI, or LD) do more poorly on the disc sorting, relative to the card slapping, or show more errors. Extremely low scaled scores (those below 7, or especially below 5) on the AD could signal the presence of a severe inability to divide attention, or poor executive function ability.

The AD Correct score should not be used as a single indicator of ADHD or LD, but rather, should be used as part of a thorough investigation of all evidence for possible disability.

 ◦ ◦ Attention Divided Incorrect Score Extremely low scaled scores on the AD Incorrect score (below 7) could signal the presence of a severe inability to divide attention; poor motor ability or coordination; slowness of response; tendency to complete tasks in a quick but inaccurate way, or poor executive function ability. Even more than the AD Correct score, the AD Incorrect score is more evidence for a response pattern similar to atypical respondants.

 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Nonverbal Stroop Congruent Incorrect This is also an indicator of atypical responding.

Any score below 7 signals need for an investigation.

Make sure the participate understood the task.

If a low score appears valid, the question arises as to what type of difficulty or deficit this individual is reflecting in his/her performance. Lack of motor coordination? A visual problem? Lack of quick responding? Deficit in executive functioning?

 ◦ ◦ Nonverbal Stroop Incongruent Incorrect Scores Low scores (7 or below) are an indicator of atypical responding.

The same questions need to be examined- Is this poor motor coordination? Lack of quick responding? Deficit in executive functioning? Inability to inhibit responses to non-matching stimuli?

  For individuals who function at a low level of ability and any individual who is expected to be retested on the Leiter-3, the Growth Scores provide an excellent source of information. The Growth Scores were designed using the Item Response Theory (IRT) so that small increments of growth could be measured.

 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ The Leiter-3 was validated with: WJ-III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (correlations of different subtests ranged from .77 to .92, with Fluid Reasoning being the highest correlated).

WISC-IV Perceptual Reasoning Index (nearly equal at 87.6 and 87.3 in scaled scores) and Processing Speed (scaled scores were 100 and 97.6, respectively). Stanford Binet-5 th Edition (correlate at .85).

Leiter-R (a conversion table of scores provided in manual, as the Leiter-3 scores higher due to Flynn effect).

Authored by Dr. Susan Mayes Published in 2012

  The Checklist for Autism Spectrum Disorder (CASD) offers a quick and valid means of screening for and diagnosing children with autism across the entire autism spectrum, regardless of age, IQ, or autism severity.

The CASD is for children 1 to 16 years of age and is completed and scored by clinicians or parents in 15 minutes.

 The 30 CASD symptoms are scored as present or absent.  Research with the CASD shows that children with both high functioning autism (HFA) and low functioning autism (LFA) earn CASD total scores at or above the autism cutoff of 15.

 In contrast, children with typical development, mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, language disorder, learning disability, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, hearing impairment, anxiety disorder, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder score below 15 on the CASD.

 The CASD is normed and standardized on 2,469 children with autism, other clinical disorders, and typical development.

 In the national standardization sample, the CASD differentiated children with and without autism with 99.5% accuracy.

 The CASD is the only diagnostic instrument designed to evaluate a single spectrum, in contrast to other instruments that assess pervasive developmental disorder subtypes.  Each of the proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder corresponds to symptoms on the CASD.

Symptom Score 15-30 11-14 7 or below Description Autism Range Borderline Range (8 or higher is at risk and needs further evaluation) Normal Range