Kennedy and the Cold War - Belgrade-Brooten

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Transcript Kennedy and the Cold War - Belgrade-Brooten

Kennedy and the Cold War
Chapter 28
Election of 1960
~ Republican
-Richard Nixon (VP)
-get in through IKE
-John F. Kennedy
- get US moving…
~Both candidates similar on Major Issues~
Kennedy +’s & -’s
~wealthy family
~43 y/o
~ Roman Catholic
1st TV debates between Pres.
September 26,1960 ~ 70 million
Nixon (foreign policy expert)
agreed; wanted to expose JFK
 JFK coached, looked & spoke
Radio listeners – debate= toss-up
TV viewers
- debate= JFK win
Civil Rights
Martin Luther King arrested in Atlanta, GA with 33
others for sit-in at segregated lunch counter
 Others released
 King sentenced to months of hard labor
 Officially for traffic violation
 Eisenhower admin. refused to step in
 Nixon no position
 JFK called wife – sympathy
Robert K. talked w/ judge  out on bail
Win African American votes
Very close election
wins by less than 119,000 votes
New era at the White House ~ Camelot
 Celebrities
in the White House
“Ask not what your country can do for you
– ask what you can do for your country”
Kennedy Administration
Best and the Brightest ~ advisors
 McGeorge
Bundy ~ Harvard Dean ~National
 Robert McNamara ~pres. Ford~ Secretary of
 Dean Rusk ~ pres. Of Rockefeller Found. ~
Secretary of State
 Robert Kennedy ~ brother ~ Attorney General
New Policy
Eisenhower – Brinksmanship – massive
retaliation to deter Soviet Aggression
 Threaten
nuclear war for minor conflict??
Kennedy new policy
 Flexible
Response- increased the rest of the
armed forces as well, so could fight w/out nuke
 Started
Special Forces, Green Berets
Crisis over Cuba
Problems in Cuba start even before JFK takes
 Revolutionary leader, Fidel Castro, takes control
Guerilla movement vs. Batista, promised democracy
 US recognized new government
 Cuba seizes US and British oil refineries
Declares Cuba Communist
Welcomes Soviet help
Exiles flee to US
Bay of Pigs
Ike gave permission to CIA to
train exiles for an invasion of
 Trigger
mass uprising, overthrow
Kennedy learned of plan days
after election
 Had
doubts about plan
 Still approved
April 17, 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion
1,300 – 1,500 exiles
 Supported by US military
Nothing went as planned
Air strike fails to knock out Cuban air force
 Small advance group (distract forces) never
make it
 Main force reaches land; faced by 25,000 troops
backed by Soviet tanks & aircraft
Invaders killed and imprisoned
Cuban Missile Crisis
Krushchev promises to defend Cuba w/ arms
 Summer of 1962 huge flow of nuclear
weapons from Soviet Union to Cuba
warns will not tolerate offensive nuclear
weapons in Cuba
US does air plane surveillance in October
 Soviet
missile bases in Cuba
 Some had missiles ready to launch
 Could
reach US in minutes
6 days world faces
chance of nuclear war
 In
the Atlantic Soviet
ships headed to Cuba
 Assumed
to be carrying
more missiles
 US
Navy prepared to
quarantine Cuba;
prevent ships from
coming w/in 500 miles
 100,000
troops waited in
Florida; ready to invade
Soviet ships stop suddenly
“We were eyeball to eyeball
and the other guy just
A few days later,
Krushchev offers to remove
missiles from Cuba, if US…
Pledge not to invade Cuba
 Secretly agree to remove
missiles from Turkey
Leaders agree, avoid crisis
Both leaders take heat
Krushchev – prestige damaged in Soviet
Union and world
 JFK accused of Brinkmanship (could have talked it out)
 Some
said missed chance to invade Cuba, and
oust Castro
Cubans blame Democrats for losing Cuba,
switch allegiance to Republicans
Castro closes doors to exiles