Introduction to Poetry

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Transcript Introduction to Poetry

March 27
1. Take out ISN
2. Label pg. 7: Figurative Lang. Practice &
Original Poem
3. Label pg. 8: Notes
Poetic Terminology
Definition of Poetry
• Poetry - A type of writing that uses
language to express imaginative
and emotional qualities instead of
or in addition to meaning.
• Poetry may be written as individual
poems or included in other written
forms as in dramatic poetry,
hymns, or song lyrics.
Literary Devices
Used in Poetry
Figurative Language
Figurative Language is the
use of words outside of their
literal or usual meaning to
add beauty or force.
It is characterized by the use
of similes and metaphors.
Metaphor is a figure of speech that
makes a comparison between two
unlike things, in which one thing
becomes another without the use
of the words like, as, than, or
Love is a rose.
Simile is a figure of speech that
makes a comparison between two
unlike things, using words such as
like, as, than, or resembles.
My love is like a red, red rose.
- Robert Burns
Onomatopoeia is the use of
a word or words whose
sound imitates its meaning.
crackle, pop, fizz, click, chirp
Personification is a special kind of
metaphor in which a nonhuman
thing is talked about as if it was
human (given human
This poetry gets bored of being alone,
It wants to go outdoors to chew on
the wings,
To fill its commas with the keels of
-Hugo Margenat, from”Living Poetry”
Hyperbole is the use of exaggeration. It
may be used to evoke strong feelings or to
create a strong impression, but is not
meant to be taken literally.
This bag weighs a ton!
Alliteration is the use of
similar sounds at the
beginning or end of a
EX: Bouncing baby boy
Assonance Assonance is the use of
similar vowel sounds
within a word.
Example: stony, stormy, holy
Poetic Structures
Consonance is the use of repeating
consonants without repeating vowels
Example: back, luck, rock, stick
Assonance EX:
In Public Enemy's 'Don't Believe The Hype':
"Their pens and pads I snatch 'cause I've had it
I'm not an addict, fiending for static
I see their tape recorder and I grab it
No, you can't have it back, silly rabbit".
Write an original poem about either
– Your favorite meal
– Your favorite place
• Include 5 different examples of figurative
April 3
• Take out ISN
• Be ready for a warm-up
Say the words “trapeze, above, support,
hurray” aloud
Think about… how are they all
pronounced? What do they have in
• 13: Rhymed Poem
• 14: Poetry Structure Notes
Iambic Rhythm
• These examples have an iambic rhythm
• Trapeze (we say, “tra-PEZE”)
• above (we say, "a-BOVE")
• support (we say, "sup-PORT")
• hurray (we say, "hur-RAY").
Iambic rhythm
"His noisy snoring woke the neighbors' dog."
Bah-BAH bah-BAH bah-BAH bah-BAH bahBAH.
• None of us talk like robots.
• We give certain words and sounds more
emphasis than others in a sentence,
depending on a number of factors
including the meaning of the words and
our own personal speaking style.
• Meter measures lines of poetry based on
stressed and unstressed syllables.
• When we speak, we put the stress on a
certain part of each word.
• For example, take the words "apple" and
Stressed and unstressed
• When we say the word "apple," we stress
the first syllable, the "ap" part.
• We say "AP-ple," how not "ap-PLE."
• When we say the word "fantastic," we
stress the second syllable.
• We say, "fan-TAS-tic," not "FAN-tas-tic" or
Iambic Foot
An iambic foot is an
unstressed syllable
followed by a stressed
syllable .
We could write the rhythm like
da DUM
Meter is the pattern of
rhythm established for a
Rhythm is the actual
sound that results from a
line of poetry.
Iambic Pentameter
Iambic Pentameter is a
line of poetry with five
iambic feet in a row This
is the most common
meter in English poetry.
We could write the rhythm like this:
da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM da-DUM
We can notate this with a ˘ mark
representing an unstressed syllable
and a '/' mark representing a stressed
Example Continued:
The following line from John Keats' Ode to
Autumn is a straightforward example:
To swell the gourd, and plump the ha - zel
Rhyme is the placement
of identical or similar
sounds at the ends of
lines or at predictable
locations within lines.
Poetry is separated into lines
on a page. Lines may be
based on the number of
metrical feet, or may stress
a rhyme pattern at the ends
of lines.
Stanzas are groups of lines in a poem
which are named by the number of
lines included.
Two lines is a couplet.
Three lines is a triplet or tercet.
Four lines is a quatrain.
Five lines is a quintain or cinquain.
Six lines is a sestet.
Eight lines is an octet.
Couplet is two lines of a poem that are
related by either rhyme or structure.
Rhyme Scheme
Rhyme Scheme is the use
of rhyme in a pattern as
a structural element in a
Rhyme schemes are described
using letters that correspond
to sets of rhymes.
Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, A
Humpty Dumpty had a great fall; A
All the king’s horses and all the king’s men, B
Couldn’t put Humpty together again. B
------------------------------------------------The rhyme scheme for this poem is:
Example Continued:
A told B,
B told C,
“I’ll meet you at the top
of the coconut tree.”
“Whee!” said D
To E F G
“I’ll beat you to the top
of the coconut tree.”
Chicka chicka boom boom!
Will there be enough room?
Here comes H
Up the coconut tree
and I and J
and tagalong K,
All on their way
up the coconut tree.
-from Chicka, Chicka Boom Boom
by Bill Martian Jr., and
John Archambault
Rhyme scheme:
The Road Not Taken
Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, (a)
And sorry I could not travel both (b)
And be one traveler, long I stood (a)
And looked down one as far as I could (a)
To where it bent in the undergrowth; (b)
Then took the other, as just as fair, (c)
And having perhaps the better claim, (d)
Because it was grassy and wanted wear, (c)
Though as for that the passing there (c)
Had worn them really about the same. (d)
And both that morning equally lay (e)
In leaves no step had trodden black .(f)
Oh, I kept the first for another day! (e)
Yet knowing how way leads on to way (e)
I doubted if I should ever come back. (f)
I shall be telling this with a sigh (g)
Somewhere ages and ages hence: (h)
Two roads diverged in a wood, and I, (g)
I took the one less traveled by, (g)
And that has made all the difference. (h)
ISN processing
• Write an original poem about something you enjoy
• Choose one of the following rhyme schemes
• Your poem must be at least 3 stanzas
Poetic Forms
Blank Verse
Blank Verse is poetry
written in unrhymed
iambic pentameter.
To be, or not to be: that is
the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the
mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of
outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a
sea of troubles,
And by opposing end
To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to
say we end
The heart-ache and the
thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a
Devoutly to be wish'd.
From Hamlet
William Shakespeare
Free Verse
Free Verse is poetry that
does not have a regular
meter or rhyme scheme.
excerpt from Song of Myself
by Walt Whitman:
I celebrate myself, and sing myself,
And what I assume you shall assume,
For every atom belonging to me as good
belongs to you.
I loaf and invite my soul,
I lean and loaf at my ease observing a
spear of summer grass.
A sonnet is a fourteen line
poem that is usually
written in iambic
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? (Sonnet 18)
by William Shakespeare
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,
And summer's lease hath all too short a date.
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,
And often is his gold complexion dimmed;
And every fair from fair sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimmed;
But thy eternal summer shall not fade,
Nor lose possession of that fair thou ow'st,
Nor shall death brag thou wand'rest in his shade,
When in eternal lines to Time thou grow'st.
So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
Haiku is a popular form of
traditional Japanese poetry
consists of 17-syllables
comprising three metrical lines
of 5, 7, and 5 syllables.
(5) Tree grow-ing old-er
(7) An-cient el-der shad-ing me
(5) Calm, cool, peace-ful day
- Mrs. Chi, 2/08
Acrostic poetry
Acrostic poems use letter
patterns to create multiple
When the first letters of lines
read downward form a separate
phrase or word.
-Mrs. Chi, 2/08
Concrete Poetry
Concrete Poetry uses word
arrangement, typeface, color
or other visual effects to
complement or dramatize the
meaning of the words used.
Example #1:
From Wright Flyer Online
Example #2:
by Michael P. Garofalo
Epic Poetry
An Epic Poem is a long story
told in verse which tells the
great deeds of a hero.
The Odyssey
by Homer
Narrative Poetry
Narrative Poem is a poem
that tells a story.
T’was the Night Before Christmas
by Clement C. Moore
Verse Fable
Verse Fable is a brief story told
in verse that illustrates a moral
and features human-like
animals, plants, objects, or
forces of nature.
A Boy Cries Wolf
Once there was a foolish boy
Whose job it was to guard some sheep
In case a hungry wolf might come
To pounce upon them in their sleep.
The owners told him: If a wolf
Should come, be sure to give a cry
So we can come and save the sheep
And give that wolf a swift goodbye.
The foolish boy grew bored one night,
And cried out Wolf! Wolf! just for jokes,
And farmers came from far and wide,
But left disgusted by his hoax.
But then at midnight that boy spied
A savage wolf about to strike,
Wolf! Wolf! he screamed, but no one came
And sheep and shepherd died alike.
MORAL: Those who enjoy making fools of others often make
fools of themselves.
from the book Aesop's Best: 80 Fables in Verse by William Cleary
Lyric Poetry
Lyric Poetry portrays the
poet's own feelings, states
of mind, ideas, and
Where the Sidewalk Ends
There is a place where the sidewalk ends
And before the street begins,
And there the grass grows soft and white,
And there the sun burns crimson bright,
And there the moon-bird rests from his flight
To cool in the peppermint wind.
Let us leave this place where the smoke blows black
And the dark street winds and bends.
Past the pits where the asphalt flowers grow
We shall walk with a walk that is measured and slow,
And watch where the chalk-white arrows go
To the place where the sidewalk ends.
Yes we'll walk with a walk that is measured and slow,
And we'll go where the chalk-white arrows go,
For the children, they mark, and the children, they know
The place where the sidewalk ends.
by Shel Silverstein