Drifting Toward Disunion - Thomasville High School

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Transcript Drifting Toward Disunion - Thomasville High School

Drifting Toward Disunion
Chapter 19
Essential Question?
• To what extent did
differing opinions on
slavery as well as the
institution’s expansion
become a deciding
factor in instituting a
Civil War?
“So you’re the little lady who wrote
the book that made this great war.”
• 1852: Harriet Beecher
Stowe publishes Uncle
Tom’s Cabin
• Told of cruelties of
slavery.
• Popular in North and
Europe
• South banned- protested
that Stowe lied and didn’t
really know slavery
• 1857: Hinton Helper
publishes The Impending
Crisis of the South
• Southerner who hated
slavery and AA
• “Poor whites are the ones
hurt by slavery”
• Both books increased the
division between North
and South
Bleeding Kansas
• After the KansasNebraska Act
abolitionists from the
north and pro-slavery
southerners began to
flood into Kansas.
• Vote on popular
sovereignty would decide
future of slavery in Kansas
• Vote was won by proslavery forces who
outnumbered free soilers’
• Both sides established
competing governments
and claimed to be
legitimate.
• 1856: pro-slavery forces
attacked and burned free
soil Lawrence; tensions
rise
Sack of Lawrence
Meet John Brown
• Hardcore abolitionist
• Little –bit crazy
• Upset over Sack of
Lawrence
• Led a sneak attack on
pro-slavery forces at
Pottawatomie Creek to
seek revenge.
• Murdered 5
Bleeding Kansas
• Civil war (1856!) in
Kansas pro-slavery v.
abolition
• 1857: Kansas applies for
statehood
• Lecompton
Constitution- proposed
state constitution that
would have allowed
slavery.
• Don’t forget popular
sovereignty!!!
• Abolitionists boycott
vote on Lecompton
Constitution, with only
pro-slavery people
voting it was approved.
Division of Democrats
• Struggle over Kansas
divides Democrats.
• Party really splits into to
separate parties
– Northern Democrats
– Southern Democrats
• No other powerful
national party exists at
this time!
Brooks v. Sumner
• Sen. Sumner( North,
abolitionist) insults a
Senator from SC.
• Rep. Brooks (South,
pro-slavery) takes
offense, decides to seek
revenge.
• 1856: Brooks beats
Sumner senseless with
cane.
• Brooks a hero in the
South.
• Sumner would take 3
years to recover, but
also became a hero for
the abolitionist cause.
Sumner-Brooks Incident
1856 Election
• Bleeding Kansas shaped
the 1856 election.
• Stephan Douglas
expected the
nomination, but his
support of K-N Act
made him controversial.
• Democrats chose James
Buchanan, Ambassador
to the UK, who had
nothing to do with K-N.
Emergence of the Republicans
• Platform – anti
extension of slavery
• Chose John C. Fremont
(hero from Mexican
War) as 1st presidential
candidate.
• Drew support from
former Whigs and FreeSoiliers.
3rd Party
• Remember the KnowNothings (American)?
• Anti-immigrant party
• Selected former
president Millard
Fillmore as candidate
1856 Election
Importance: Republicans make an impressive
showing.
Buchanan Timeline
• 1857: Dred Scott v.
Sanford
– Panic of 1857
• 1858
– Lincoln-Douglas Debates
• 1859
– Harpers Ferry
• 1860
– Election of Abraham
Lincoln
– SC secedes from union
– Crittenden Compromise
• 1861
– Formation of
Confederate States of
America
Dred Scott v. Sanford
• 1857: A slave (Scott) was taken by his owner
(Sanford) into a free state.
• Scott sued claiming that he was free because
he stepped foot on free ground.
• Supreme Court is controlled by southerners,
what will be the outcome?
Scott v. Sanford
• Chief Justice Taney
– Slaves are not citizens, can’t sue, so the case was
thrown out.
– Based on 5th Amendment, property can’t be taken
away from citizens.
– No state, or the federal government can make
laws that prohibit slavery.
Importance
• Dred Scott was a major setback for
abolitionists and free-soilers.
• Overruled Missouri Compromise,
Compromise of 1850, and Kansas-Nebraska
Act.
• Stated that popular sovereignty does not have
a constitutional basis.
• South cheered, north jeered.
Panic of 1857
• High levels of California gold cause inflation.
• North hit hard, severe recession.
• South supported by high demand for cotton.
– South believes that nothing could stop King
Cotton!
• Tariff of 1857 was the lowest in 50 years.
– South likes, north hates.
Honest Abe
• Born in Kentucky, lived
in Indiana and Illinois.
• Poor, self-educated.
• Hardworking, suffered
from depression.
• Became a lawyer and
great speaker.
• 1 term congressman
(Spot-Resolution)
Lincoln- Douglas Debates
• Lincoln challenged incumbent Stephan
Douglas in 1858.
• Meet for a series of debates.
• Douglas championed the “Freeport Doctrine”
– despite Dred Scott, he believed that pop.
Sovereignty was the true way to solve slavery
issue.
• Douglas wins, but debates make Lincoln a
national name and prime candidate in 1860!
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
Turn to page 421
Remember Me?
• Still upset, and crazy, John Brown has a new
plan – Invade the south, arm the slaves and
lead a history changing rebellion.
• 1859: Brown and his followers attack and seize
a federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA.
• Buchanan sends the marines, led by Robert E.
Lee , to capture Brown.
• Brown was convicted of treason, executed.
John Brown
“I’ll be John Brown”
• Importance
– Brown becomes a martyr for abolitionists.
– South fears other attacks by northerners trying to
free slaves.
Democrats Divide 1860
Northern Democrats
Southern Democrats
• Stephan Douglas
• Popular
sovereignty
• Continuation of
Fugitive Slave Law
• John Breckinridge
• Slavery in
territories
• Annexation of
Cuba
Constitution Party
• Platform – “Do nothing,
Constitution is fine as it
is”
• No mention of slavery
• Select John Bell as
candidate
Republicans Pick Lincoln
• Platform
– Free-soil for western
settlers
– Nonextension of slavery
– Pro-tariff
– Full rights for immigrants
– Northern
transcontinental RR
– Internal improvements
1860 Election
Southern Reaction
• If Democrats had run together, they would
have easily won.
• Lincoln had the White House, but Democrats
still controlled Supreme Court, Congress, and
the Constitution protected slavery!
• But for many southerners it was time for a
change.
– SC celebrated, had an excuse to secede!
Southern Exodus
• December 1860: SC legislature votes
unanimously to secede.
• Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi,
Louisiana, and Texas follow in early 1861.
• These states met in Alabama to create a new
constitution, and select Jefferson Davis as
president of the Confederate States of
America.
Buchanan Does Nothing
• Remember- Lincoln isn’t president yet!
• Buchanan in power until March, 1861.
• Did not believe South had the power to
secede, but did nothing to prevent it.
• Did not increase the size of the army (South
was already building theirs).
1 Last Shot
• Sen. James Crittenden proposes a compromise
– New Amendment to the Constitution
– 36 30’ would be written into the Constitution as
the official dividing line of slavery.
– Crittenden was no Henry Clay, and the attempt
failed.
South Waves Farewell
• President Davis “ all we ask is to be let alone’”
• Most southerners felt that Yankees wouldn’t
be willing to fight.
• Also felt that northern manufactures were
dependent on cotton, would not risk upsetting
south.
• World History- Late 1800s = rise in
nationalism, countries like Germany and Italy
were forming, South felt no different.
Essential Question?
• To what extent did
differing opinions on
slavery as well as the
institution’s expansion
become a deciding
factor in instituting a
Civil War?