The JIP Database 1. What it is? 2. JIP 2009 results 3

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Transcript The JIP Database 1. What it is? 2. JIP 2009 results 3

The JIP Database
1. What it is?
2. JIP 2009 results
3. A robustness check on JIP Labor Input Data
World KLEMS 1st Conference
August 19-20, 2010
Kyoji Fukao (Hitotsubashi Univeristy)
Tsutomu Miyagawa (Gakushuin University)
Joji Tokui (Shinshu University)
1
1. What is the JIP Darabase?
• JIP = Japan Industrial Productivity
• The JIP Database is compiled as one of the
RIETI’s research project. The RIETI (Research
Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry) is a
government agency.
• We are providing the JIP data on the RIETI’s
website.
http://www.rieti.go.jp/en/database/index.html
2
JIP database 2009 table index #1/5
(1) Input-Output table
1) Value of output and intermediate input table (current prices, million
yen) [XLS:77KB] updated June 2, 2009
2) Value of output and intermediate input table (constant prices, million
yen) [XLS:77KB] updated June 2, 2009
3) Input-output table (current prices, million yen) [ZIP:993KB] updated
June 2, 2009
4) Input-output table (constant prices, million yen) [ZIP:1.36MB] updated
June 2, 2009
5) Distribution of gross value added: current prices [XLS:305KB] updated
June 2, 2009
i) Consumption of fixed capital
ii) Indirect taxes and subsidies
iii) Compensation of employees and mixed income
iv) Operating surplus
6) Final demand by sectors (current prices, million yen) [XLS:298KB]
updated June 2, 2009
7) Final demand by sectors (constant prices, million yen) [XLS:338KB]
updated June 2, 2009
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JIP database 2009 table index #2/5
(2) Capital input
1) Investment by sectors [XLS:663KB] updated June 2, 2009
i) Investment by sector (constant prices, million yen)
ii) Investment by asset (constant prices, million yen)
iii) Indices of capital input by sector (2000=1.000)
iv) Indices of capital quality by sector (2000=1.000)
v) Average annual change in real net capital stock by sector (by percent)
vi) Real net capital stock by sectors (year 2000 prices, million yen)
vii) Real net capital stock by the type of capital goods (year 2000 prices, million yen)
viii) Nominal capital services (nominal rental price*real net capital stock, million yen)
2) IT investment by sector [XLS:647KB] updated June 2, 2009
i) IT investment by sector (current prices, million yen)
ii) IT investment by sector (constant prices, million yen)
iii) IT investment (hardware) by sector (current prices, million yen)
iv) IT investment (hardware) by sector (constant prices, million yen)
v) IT investment (software) by sector (current prices, million yen)
vi) IT investment (software) by sector (constant prices, million yen)
vii) IT capital stock by sector (current prices, million yen)
viii) Non-IT capital stock by sector (constant prices, million yen)
3) Investment matrix and stock matrix updated June 2, 2009
i) Investment matrix (current prices) [XLS:2.44MB] updated June 2, 2009
ii) Investment matrix (2000: constant prices) [XLS:2.43MB] updated June 2, 2009
iii) Stock matrix (2000: constant prices) [XLS:2.56MB]
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JIP database 2009 table index #3/5
(3) Labor input
1) Indices of labor input by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:86KB] updated June 2, 2009
2) Average annual change in indices of labor input by sector (%) [XLS:41KB] updated June 2,
2009
3) Indices of man-hours by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:85KB] updated June 2, 2009
4) Average annual change in man-hours (%) [XLS:41KB] updated June 2, 2009
5) Indices of labor quality by sector (2000=1.000) [XLS:101KB] updated June 2, 2009
6) Average annual change in indices of labor quality by sector (%) [XLS:41KB] updated June 2,
2009
7) Number of workers by sector [XLS:93KB] updated June 2, 2009
8) Man-hours by sector (1,000 workers* total annual working hours) [XLS:85KB] updated
June 2, 2009
9) Nominal labor costs by sector (million yen) [XLS:85KB] updated June 2, 2009
10) Female ratio (female workers/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] updated June 2, 2009
11) Part-time workers ratio (part-time workers/total workers, %) [XLS:32KB] updated June 2,
2009
12) Ratio of workers over 55 years old (workers over 55 years old/total workers, %)
[XLS:32KB]
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JIP database 2009 table index #4/5
(4) Growth accounting [ZIP:1.62MB] updated June 17, 2009
1) Individual spreadsheet titles
2) Definition of aggregate sectors
3) Output (year 2000 prices, million yen)
4) Growth rate of output (constant prices)
5) Output (current prices, million yen)
6) Intermediate input index (Divisia index, 2000=1.000)
7) Intermediate input (Simple total, year 2000 prices, million yen)
8) Intermediate input (current prices, million yen)
9) Value added (current prices, million yen)
10) Labor input index (Divisia index, 2000=1.000)
11) Labor costs by sector (current prices, million yen)
12) Indices of labor quality (2000=1.000)
13) Indices of man-hours (2000=1.000)
14) Indices of capital service input (Divisia index, 2000=1.000)
15) Capital services (current rental price*constant net capital stock, million yen)
16) Indices of capital quality (2000=1.000)
17) Indices of net capital stock (2000=1.000)
18) Cost share of production factor
19) Growth rate of sectoral TFP
20) Contribution by production factors (value added base)
21) Contribution by production factors (output base)
22) Growth accounting (value added base)
23) Growth accounting (output base)
24) TFP percentage change (value added base)
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JIP database 2009 table index #5/5
(5) Supplementary tables updated June 2, 2009
1) Regulation Indices for 97 Sectors [CSV:45KB] updated June 2, 2009
2) Outward FDI by JIP 2009 Sector and Region: 1985-2005 [CSV:352KB]
For figures in more detailed country classification, see RIETI FDI database. updated
June 2, 2009
3) Share of Workers by Occupation and JIP 2009 Sector: 1980-2005 [CSV:444KB]
(6) Industry concordance with JSIC and ISIC
updated June 28, 2008
CSV [CSV:121KB] PDF [PDF:218KB]
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We are working on the team.
JIP 2009 was compiled by the following scholars.
Annual input-output tables
FUKAO Kyoji (Hitotsubashi University)
MATSUURA Toshiyuki (Keio University)
OKANO Yusuke (Graduate School, Senshu University)
KWON Hyeog Ug (Nihon University)
Capital service input data
MIYAGAWA Tsutomu (Gakushuin University)
INUI Tomohiko (Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office and Nihon University)
HISA Shoichi (RIETI Research Assistant)
Labor input data
TOKUI Joji (Shinshu University)
MAKINO Tatsuji (RIETI Research Assistant)
Supplementary tables
ITO Keiko (Senshu University)
INUI Tomohiko (Economic and Social Research Institute, Cabinet Office and Nihon University)
MATSUURA Toshiyuki (Keio University)
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JIP sector classification
JIP No.
Sector Name
JIP No.
Sector Name
JIP No.
Sector Name
1 Rice, wheat production
37 Miscellaneous iron and steel
73 Railway
2 Miscellaneous crop farming
38 Smelting and refining of non-ferrous metals
74 Road transportation
3 Livestock and sericulture farming
39 Non-ferrous metal products
75 Water transportation
4 Agricultural services
40 Fabricated constructional and architectural metal products
76 Air transportation
5 Forestry
41 Miscellaneous fabricated metal products
77 Other transportation and packing
6 Fisheries
42 General industry machinery
78 Telegraph and telephone
7 Mining
43 Special industry machinery
79 Mail
8 Livestock products
44 Miscellaneous machinery
80 Education (private and non-profit)
9 Seafood products
45 Office and service industry machines
81 Research (private)
10 Flour and grain mill products
46 Electrical generating, transmission, distribution and industrial apparatus
82 Medical (private)
11 Miscellaneous foods and related products
47 Household electric appliances
83 Hygiene (private and non-profit)
12 Prepared animal foods and organic fertilizers
Electronic data processing machines, digital and analog computer equipment and
48 accessories
84 Other public services
13 Beverages
49 Communication equipment
85 Advertising
14 Tobacco
50 Electronic equipment and electric measuring instruments
86 Rental of office equipment and goods
15 Textile products
51 Semiconductor devices and integrated circuits
87 Automobile maintenance services
16 Lumber and wood products
52 Electronic parts
88 Other services for businesses
17 Furniture and fixtures
53 Miscellaneous electrical machinery equipment
89 Entertainment
18 Pulp, paper, and coated and glazed paper
54 Motor vehicles
90 Broadcasting
19 Paper products
55 Motor vehicle parts and accessories
91 Information services and internet-based services
20 Printing, plate making for printing and bookbinding
56 Other transportation equipment
92 Publishing
21 Leather and leather products
57 Precision machinery & equipment
93 Video picture, sound information, character information production and distribution
22 Rubber products
58 Plastic products
94 Eating and drinking places
23 Chemical fertilizers
59 Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
95 Accommodation
24 Basic inorganic chemicals
60 Construction
96 Laundry, beauty and bath services
25 Basic organic chemicals
61 Civil engineering
97 Other services for individuals
26 Organic chemicals
62 Electricity
98 Education (public)
27 Chemical fibers
63 Gas, heat supply
28 Miscellaneous chemical products
64 Waterworks
100 Medical (public)
29 Pharmaceutical products
65 Water supply for industrial use
101 Hygiene (public)
30 Petroleum products
66 Waste disposal
102 Social insurance and social welfare (public)
31 Coal products
67 Wholesale
103 Public administration
32 Glass and its products
68 Retail
104 Medical (non-profit)
33 Cement and its products
69 Finance
105 Social insurance and social welfare (non-profit)
34 Pottery
70 Insurance
106 Research (non-profit)
35 Miscellaneous ceramic, stone and clay products
71 Real estate
107 Other (non-profit)
36 Pig iron and crude steel
72 Housing
108 Activities not elsewhere classified
99 Research (public)
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Sectors, and years the JIP covers.
• The JIP covers 108 sectors,
of which 52 sectors are manufacturing,
and of which 46 sectors are services.
• These sectoral classification are on the activity
(commodity) basis, not on the industry basis.
• The JIP 2009 covers years from 1970 to 2006.
Now we are preparing the JIP 2010, scheduled
to be provided on September.
10
How we construct the JIP data?
– (1) Input-Output (IO) Tables
• The symmetric IO Tables of the JIP are based on
three types of IO tables compiled by the Japanese
government:
1) Linked IO Tables (every 5 years),
2) Annual Extended IO Tables (annually),
3) SNA IO Tables (annually).
• Using RAS method we estimate the JIP-108-sector IO
tables annually.
11
How we construct the JIP data?
– (2) Capital
• We construct net capital stock and capital service indices.
• 39 types of assets×108 sectors
• We construct investment series by industry and by asset.
We use capital formation data from the Fixed Capital
Flow Matrix, which is published every five years. We
interpolate the data for intervening years by using
industry-specific surveys.
• To construct net capital stock series we use the perpetual
inventory method based on BEA depreciation rates for
various types of assets.
12
How we construct the JIP data?
– (3) Labor
• The JIP labor data is cross-classified by gender, age
(11 categories), education (4 categories), and
employment status of workers (3 categories).
• For employment status of workers, we have the
category of part-time workers.
• Since sectral classification of labor data is based on
industry, we convert labor data into activity base
using V-table of SNA to be consistent with the IO
tables and capital series.
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Table 3.1: Labor input characteristics
1. Gender
2. Employment status
3. Education
(only for full-time wage and salary worker)
4. Age
5. Industry
1
2
1
2
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
108
Male
Female
Self-employed and unpaid family workers
Full-time wage and salary workers
Part-time wage and salary workers
Junior high school
Senior high school
Higher professional school and junior college
University
15-19 years old
20-24 years old
25-29 years old
30-34 years old
35-39 years old
40-44 years old
45-49 years old
50-54 years old
55-59 years old
60-64 years old
65 years old and over
JIP industry classification
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2. JIP 2009 results
Graph 1. Sectoral TFP growth rates in the 1980s
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
▲ 5.0
▲ 10.0
▲ 15.0
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In the order of 1980s’ TFP growth rate
Graph 2. Sectral TFP growth rates in the 1990s
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
▲ 5.0
▲ 10.0
▲ 15.0
16
In the order of 1980s’ TFP growth rate
Graph 3. Sectral TFP growth rates in the period 2000-2006
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
▲ 5.0
▲ 10.0
▲ 15.0
17
• In the 1980s there were sharp contrast between
productivity-rising sectors and productivity-declining
sectors.
• In the 1990s productivity change was slowed in the
overall sectors.
• In the first half of 2000s it seems to be the
emergence of some productivity-rising sectors. But
these productivity-leading sectors in the 2000s are
not the same as those in the 1980s.
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Growth Accounting
-(1) Macroeconomy
Table1. Macroeconomy
1970-80
1980-90
1990-2000
2000-2005
2005-2006
2000-2006
Real GDP Growth
4.15%
4.58%
1.23%
1.89%
1.54%
1.83%
Contribution of Labor Input Growth
1.11%
0.92%
-0.10%
-0.20%
1.70%
0.12%
Contribution of Man-hours Growth
0.28%
0.38%
-0.55%
-0.69%
0.69%
-0.46%
Contribution of Labor Quality Growth
0.82%
0.54%
0.45%
0.48%
1.01%
0.57%
1.69%
2.01%
1.17%
0.74%
0.69%
0.73%
2.14%
1.59%
1.08%
0.49%
0.38%
0.47%
-0.46%
0.43%
0.10%
0.25%
0.31%
0.26%
1.36%
1.64%
0.16%
1.35%
-0.85%
0.99%
Contribution of Capital Input Growth
Contribution of Capital Quantity Growth
Contribution of Capital Quality Growth
TFP Growth
Output and material input growth rates are calculated using a cost based Divisia quantity index.
19
Growth Accounting
-(2) Manufacturing
Table 2. Manufacturing sectors
1970-80
1980-90
1990-2000
2000-2005
2005-2006
2000-2006
Real GDP Growth
4.72%
6.30%
0.95%
2.71%
5.38%
3.16%
Contribution of Labor Input Growth
0.13%
0.90%
-1.31%
-1.41%
3.01%
-0.67%
-0.47%
0.42%
-1.84%
-1.73%
1.56%
-1.18%
0.60%
0.48%
0.53%
0.32%
1.45%
0.51%
0.77%
1.69%
0.92%
1.40%
1.94%
1.49%
1.06%
1.24%
0.78%
0.98%
1.65%
1.09%
-0.29%
0.45%
0.14%
0.42%
0.29%
0.40%
3.82%
3.71%
1.34%
2.72%
0.43%
2.34%
Contribution of Man-hours Growth
Contribution of Labor Quality Growth
Contribution of Capital Input Growth
Contribution of Capital Quantity Growth
Contribution of Capital Quality Growth
TFP Growth
Output and material input growth rates are calculated using a cost based Divisia quantity index.
20
Growth Accounting
-(3) Non-manufacturing
Table 3. Non-manufacturing sectors (Only market economy, Excluding Housing and Activities not elsewhere classified)
1970-80
1980-90
1990-2000
2000-2005
2005-2006
2000-2006
Real GDP Growth
3.44%
4.34%
1.03%
1.52%
0.05%
1.27%
Contribution of Labor Input Growth
1.36%
1.01%
0.12%
-0.52%
1.85%
-0.13%
Contribution of Man-hours Growth
0.37%
0.34%
-0.34%
-0.88%
0.37%
-0.67%
Contribution of Labor Quality Growth
1.00%
0.67%
0.46%
0.35%
1.48%
0.54%
1.67%
2.03%
1.11%
0.51%
0.45%
0.50%
1.81%
1.62%
0.96%
0.33%
0.16%
0.30%
-0.14%
0.40%
0.16%
0.19%
0.28%
0.21%
0.41%
1.31%
-0.20%
1.53%
-2.25%
0.90%
Contribution of Capital Input Growth
Contribution of Capital Quantity Growth
Contribution of Capital Quality Growth
TFP Growth
Output and material input growth rates are calculated using a cost based Divisia quantity index.
21
• The Japanese economic growth somewhat recovered
in the first half of 2000s after experiencing slow
growth in the 1990s.
• This recovery was mainly caused by the TFP growth.
• In 2006 the TFP growth began to stagnate, which
effect was partly offset by the increase in labor input.
• We can find these tendencies in both manufacturing
and non-manufacturing sector.
22
3. A robustness check on JIP Labor Input Data
• As a robustness check on JIP labor data, we
estimated the productivity disparities between selfemployed workers and employees by estimating a
production function.
• The data we used are enterprise-level micro data
from the Census of Manufacturing between 1981
and 2000.
Tokui, Joji, Tatsuji Makino, and Yoko Takahashi,
“Productivity Disparities between Self-Employed
Workers and Employees,” RIETI Discussion Paper 09J-018 (in Japanese).
23
First-difference OLS estimation of production function
sample size
2736845
R**2
0.294
relative
productivity(*)
coefficient
standard error
p-value
capital service
0.069
0.000
0.000
capital service × selfemployed dummy
-0.011
0.002
0.000
intermediate input
0.325
0.001
0.000
-0.148
0.003
0.000
0.760
-0.062
0.005
0.000
0.900
-0.221
0.005
0.000
0.642
male self-employed
0.242
0.019
0.000
1.392
female self-employed
-0.014
0.022
0.534
0.978
constant term
0.016
0.000
0.000
female employee in
corporation
male employee in noncorporation
female emplyee in
non-corporation
(*)It means relative productivity of each category's worker to male employee in corporation.
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Figure 1. JIP labor input after adjusting self-employed workers’
productivity
1.400
1.200
1.000
JIP 2006 labor input
0.800
Labor input after adjusting
self-employed workers'
producitivity
Labor input not only selfemployed but also gender
and age productivity gap
0.600
0.400
0.200
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
0.000
25