Differentiated Instruction

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Transcript Differentiated Instruction

Strategies for
At-Promise
Students
Michelle Goodwin, ED.D.
Esther Alcindor, M.Ed.
ACEI Conference
Tampa, FL
May 2, 2007
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Intent for Today
Learn
and/or
Affirm!!!!
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What did I get myself into?
A knock at the
door!
3
Background
NCLB
 1.) Every child will achieve
 2.) Every classroom will have a wellqualified teacher
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Background
“Highly-Qualified” Debate

What a “highly qualified teacher” means is a function of
who says so. This should not be the case. “Highly
qualified” should mean that the children of these
teachers learn more. “Highly qualified” should stand
for accomplishment not for promises that will never be
kept. “Highly qualified” should not be a label stuck on
the foreheads of 22 year old girls and boys because
they have completed university based teacher
education programs but will not seek employment in
poverty schools or will quit or fail if they do.
(Martin Haberman 2003)
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Background


ACHIEVEMENT IN
URBAN SCHOOLS
According to the Council of the Great City Schools
(2001), approximately 43% of 4th grade students within
their urban schools scored below the basic level of
proficiency in reading comprehension as compared to
30% of the 4th graders nationally and “… students in
districts with the highest concentrations of poverty had
significantly lower reading and math scores than
students in less poor districts.”
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Problem

There is little evidence to suggest that teachers,
those who directly instruct and daily interact with
students, have had multiple opportunities to voice
their notions about school improvement and what
actions they perceive would positively affect student
achievement. According to Odden (1995),
“Teachers generally have little or no role in
important decisions… too often, teachers are
viewed as ‘workers’ who implement policy made by
others not as professionals who have discretion
over their actions in the workplace.”
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Problem, cont.

Regardless of increased standards created by
policymakers, students in urban schools continue to
achieve at lower levels. It is, therefore, logical to
solicit the wisdom of exemplary teachers, those who
have exhibited a documented amount of success
working within their diverse classrooms, in order to
assess their perceptions of what teachers should know
and do in order to positively impact student achievement
within urban schools.
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My first participant…. Maybe…
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Ron Clark
Disney’s American Teacher of the Year,
2000
PS 83, Fifth Grade
Harlem New York
http://www.ronclark.info/
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Purpose

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1.) Identify attributes and skills of exemplary
teachers within urban schools-- Specifically, the
study will focus on critical knowledge in
pedagogy, curricula, and content as well as
essential skills in creating positive learning
environments, student rapport, and parental
communication.
2.) Examine exemplary teachers’ perceptions on
teacher preparation for urban classrooms
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Research Questions

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QUESTIONS:
1.) What do exemplary teachers perceive
teachers should know and be able to do in
order to provide instruction in urban elementary
classrooms?
2.) What curricula and practices do exemplary
teachers perceive teacher preparation programs
should employ in order to prepare teachers for
service in urban elementary classrooms?
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Methodology

Qualitative study with a purposeful sample
of exemplary teachers that meet the
following criteria:
1. Work in an urban public school in a division that serves
a population defined by the US Census Bureau as
being at least 90%
2. Serve at the elementary level (K-5)
3. Winner of one the following awards:
a.) Milken Award
b.) McGlothlin Award
c.) Disney’s American Teacher Award
d.) National Teacher of the Year Award – regional, state, or
national
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My Study

Ten exemplary teachers (all who were eligible
participated)

Study was exploratory and qualitative in nature

Interviews were conducted and data was
transcribed into text
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Used Patton’s framework to analyze the data
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Findings
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Assertion 1:

Successful urban teachers value
education and have support
systems in place for continual
collaboration, professional growth,
inspiration, and affirmation.
 Family
 Teacher collaboration / Mentors
 Professional Development
Opportunities
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Findings

Assertion 2:

Successful urban
teachers assess,
understand, and value the
diverse learning needs of
their students and
accordingly differentiate their
instruction to enhance
achievement for each child.
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Findings

Assertion 3:
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Successful urban teachers
create classroom
environments that make each
student feel comfortable,
valued, unique, and important.
In addition, they are
advocates for their students.
 Physical Classroom
 Genuine love for children
 Teaches whole child
 Utilizes community
resources
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Findings

Assertion 4:
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Successful urban
teachers focus on
solutions, not
problems.
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Findings

Assertion 5:

Successful urban teachers
communicate frequently with
parents and families and they
seek to construct these
relationships by a concerted effort
in making the initial contact a
positive one.
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Findings

Assertion 6:

Preparation for teacher
candidates seeking to
serve in urban
classrooms should
include multiple and
diverse field experiences
with supervision by a
master teacher.
Practicum placements
should be supplemented
with coursework that
addresses diversity and
differentiation.
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What must urban teachers know?

Content Competency
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Current Research – especially related
to diversity and culture
- differentiation and learning styles
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What must urban teachers be able
to do?
1. Utilize Support Systems
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Relationships (family and collegial)
Community resources (Social services, libraries, churches, and
other organizations)
2. Assess students and differentiate
instruction – actively engage students
3. Maintain dispositions that encourage
positive relationships with students and
families. Have an optimistic world view
and model safe, healthy, and happy living.
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What must be done to prepare teacher
candidates to serve in urban
classrooms?
Provide practicum placements that begin the first
year of college. The placements must be
dissimilar in that they are different in school
culture, population, etc.
Field experiences must be supervised by master
teachers.
Coursework must be imbedded with strategies for
building relationships and meeting needs of
diverse learners.
Candidates must be taught to reflect on their own
personal values and, in turn, how to work
with people who hold very different values.
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Check Up
What have you learned or
affirmed?
 Verbalize
 Draw
/ symbolize
 Act it out
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Accelerating
AT-PROMISE
At-Risk Students
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PETAL
Promoting Excellence
Through
Accelerated Learning
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Students who struggle with learning
typically have problems with:
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Organization
Following directions
Staying on task, attending
Interpreting &
remembering information
Basic Skills
Low expectation by others
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Knowing how to learn,
using metacognition
Making connections
Learning styles that
are different than the
teacher
Being “active” and
engaged as learners
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BE DIFFERENT
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Be a Medical Provider
Be a Cheerleader
Set HIGH
expectations
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“HIGH Expectations will always
transcend all barriers of race, poverty,
ability, cultural differences, etc. It all
comes through knowing YOU have
the power to reach and teach any
child given to you! Socrates said,
‘Before we can move the world, we
must first move ourselves!’”
Larry Bell
Multicultural America, Inc.
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Strategies

Whole Classroom Instruction
1. Constructivist - encourages
students to come to their
own understanding of
the concept at hand
2. Behaviorist - set of
instructional steps
that will lead students
to understanding
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Solve the equation.
2
x4
3
2
3 x  4 3
3
2 x  12
2
x4
3
3 2
3
 x  4
2 3
2
x6
x6
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Cognitively Instruct
1.
Cognitive strategies how a student learns
2.
Metacognitive strategies thinking about one’s
own thinking
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Add.
1
56
+25
81
 (50+20)+(6+5)
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70 + 11
81
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Small Groups
1. Mixed Ability - students within
each group are not on the same level
2. Like-Ability - students are
on the same ability level
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Tutoring
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Teacher tutors one on
one
College student
volunteers
Community
volunteers
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Peer Tutoring
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Used fellow peers to
tutor one another
Students from
previous year PETAL
Program
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Computer-Assisted Programs
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COMPASS
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Boxer Learning
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Differentiated
Instruction
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Acknowledge Differences
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Sample Lesson Plan:
Chinese Culture
Math symmetry
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What is Differentiation?
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A way of teaching in which teachers
proactively modify curriculum, teaching
methods, resources, learning activities,
and student products.
Tomlinson, 1999
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What is Differentiation?

A change in thinking about teaching and
learning that seeks to recognize, learn
about, and address the particular needs of
each student
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What is Differentiation?

It is adapting what we teach, how we
teach to accommodate student learning
styles, AND how students demonstrate
what they have learned.
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Differentiation of instruction is a
teacher’s proactive response to
learners’ needs

Teachers can differentiate:

Content – what is to be learned

Process – the activities through which students
make sense of the content

Products – how students demonstrate what
they’ve learned
Tomlinson, 1999
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Teachers differentiate on the
basis of:
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Student readiness – This goes beyond
ability.,
 is
the student for this particular task, does he
have:
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academic skills
social skills
prior knowledge
Attention
motivation, etc.
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Teachers differentiate on the basis
of:

Learning profile – does the student:
 like
to work with others or alone
 work slowly or too quickly
 exhibit a strong modality
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Teachers differentiate on the basis
of:

Interest – what is the student interested
in? Interest can be a great motivator; how
do you or can you as the teacher
incorporate those interests?
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Differentiation – A Framework
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Appetizer / SET
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Entrée / INSTRUCTION
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Side Dish / GUIDED PRACTICE & INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
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Dessert / Accommodations and/or Extra Work
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Adapted from http://www.k8accesscenter.org/index.php
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Differentiation – Personal
Examples from Our Classroom…
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Literacy – Mildred
Taylor Books
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Math – Place Value
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Key Principles of Differentiated
Classroom
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Teacher is clear about what matters in subject
matter and what the student must know, do &
understand
Teacher understands, appreciates, and builds
upon student differences
Assessment and instruction are inseparable
Teacher adjusts content, process, and
product in response to student readiness,
interests, and learning profile
All students participate in respectful work
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Key Principles of Differentiated
Classroom
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Goals of a differentiated classroom are
maximum growth and individual success
Flexibility is the hallmark of differentiated
instruction
Lessons for all students show emphasis on
critical and creative thinking
Lessons for all students should be engaging
Teachers and students are collaborators in
learning: There should be a balance between
student selected and teacher-assigned tasks
and working arrangements.
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Best Instructional Practices
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The student knows what is expected.
The student is able to complete the task with a
high degree of accuracy, but the task is
appropriately challenging.
The student has many opportunities to respond:
and is engaged in the task for a high percentage
of the time
The student receives frequent corrective
feedback about performance and perceives that
feedback or consequence to be rewarding
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Best Instructional Practices
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Tasks are presented in a logical sequence that
reinforce comprehension and “big ideas”
The task is relevant to the life; the student
understands how and why it is useful.
The student learns how to learn and remember
(process) and how to apply learned skills to
everyday problems
The teacher continuously monitors student
progress, adjusting instruction as necessary to
ensure student success.
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Learning Contracts
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An agreement between student and
teachers: The teacher grants certain
freedoms and choices about how a
student will complete tasks, and the
student agrees to use the freedoms
appropriately in designing and completing
work according to specifications.
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Contracts Should Include
A Skills Component
 A Content Component
 A Timeline
 The Agreement
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The contracts will vary in form.
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Use Advance Organizers and
Study Tools!!
Mnemonics
 Verbal Repetition
 Acronyms
 Chunking
 Graphic Organizers
 Brainstorming Activities
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Low-Prep Differentiation
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Choices of books and
materials
Homework options
Use of reading buddies
Varied journal prompts
Student-teacher goal
setting
Work alone/together
Open-ended activities
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Flexible seating
Varied computer
programs
Varying graphic
organizers
Think-Pair-Share
Collaboration,
independence,
cooperation
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High-Prep Differentiation
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Peer tutoring
Multiple texts
Independent studies
Varied assessments
Varied rubrics
Stations
Literature circles
Interest circles
Tape recorded
materials
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Learning contracts
Multiple intelligences
options
Spelling by readiness
Community mentors
Teams, games,
tournaments
Group investigation
Tape recorded
materials
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Powerful Product Assignment
Identify the essentials of the study/unit
 Identify formats or options for the product
 Determine expectations of quality
 Decide on scaffolding you may need to
build in order to promote success
(timelines, storyboard, critiquing, revising,
etc.)

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Powerful Product Assignment
Develop a product assignment that is
relevant, measurable, observable
 Differentiate or modify versions of the
assignment based on student readiness,
interest and learning profile
 Coach for success
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Resources
Bell, L. – Multicultural America
Tomlinson, C. - ASCD
Habermin, M. - Star Teachers of Children in
Poverty - Kappa Delta Pi publishers
The Access Center
http://www.k8accesscenter.org/index.php
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Share your ideas 
What are ideas that you have for a differentiated
assignment?

Diner Menu
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Check Up
What have you learned or
affirmed?
 Verbalize
 Draw
/ symbolize
 Act it out
61
A SPECIAL LETTER
Mr. Smith describes the letter below explaining that it
contained “… kind of a story…more of an anecdote.
He [the student who wrote the letter] said most
teachers find you in a hole and they shout directions
from the bank about how to get out… and he said some of the
best ones stand at the edge and reach down and actually help you
out. And they brace themselves to not fall in with you though.
And he said that I actually jumped in the hole with him and figured
out how to get out with him…out of the big hole. I thought that
was…if I could draw a picture of what I was trying to do as a
teacher…but it’s emotionally risk taking to do that. But you’ll pull
lot of kids out with you, or actually you don’t pull them out with
you, you just get out with them. (Laughter) But you’ve got to jump
in the hole with them. There’s no other way that works so well….”
[Researcher: Jump in with them huh?] And they’ll be forever
enriched.
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Final Conclusions
“… teaching is a highly complex kind of work and …
it takes both ability and advanced training to do
well.”
- Ingersol
2001
Good teaching is good teaching in any setting but
what is widely known to be important in any
classroom is absolutely critical in the urban
classroom.
According to Payne (1998) “… the role of the
educator or social worker or employer is not to
save the individual, but rather to offer a support
system, role models, and opportunities to learn,
which will increase the likelihood of the person’s
success. Ultimately, the choice always belongs to
the individual.”
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Contact Information
Michelle Goodwin
 [email protected]

Esther Alcindor
 [email protected]

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