Promotion through the marketing channel
Promotion through the marketing channel
Promotion through the
Instructor: Jungwan Lee
• 1900’s –Atlanta druggist Asa ChandlerHandwritten notes-a free glass of Coca-Coal
• Coupon face value-180billion/year
• Coupon-2 % redeemed by customers-3.6
• Coupon issuing and distribution costs-6.5
• P&G-coupon test: elimination??
What is promotional strategy?
• ..controlled, integrated program of
communications methods and materials
designed to present a company and its
products to prospective customers.
• ..to communicate need-satisfying attributes
of products toward the end of facilitating
sales and thus contributing to long-run profit
Major tools for manufacture’s
Channel member support
Factors influencing trade promotional
Item importance (16.3%)
Promotion elasticity (9.3%)
Manufacturer brand support (8.2%)
Manufacturer reputation (7.3%)
Promotion wearout (6.4%)
Sales velocity (5.4%)
Item profitability (4.5%)
Incentive amount (4.2%)
• -Source: Ronald C. Curhan and Robert J. Kopp, “Obtaining
retailer support for trade deals: Key success factors,” Journal of
Advertising Research, Dec.1987-jan.1988: p.54
Variables of Item importance
• Item is significant enough to warrant
• Category responds well to promotion.
• Closest trade competitor is likely to
• Item regular sales volume.
• Deal meshes with trade promotional
Variables of manufacturer brand
Manufacturer’s brand support in form of:
Radio and television advertising.
Point-of purchase promotion (e.g.,
Variables of promotion elasticity
• Buyer’s estimate of sales increase on
the basis of:
• Price reduction and display.
• Display only.
• Price reduction only.
• Price reduction, display, and advertising
Pull versus Push
• Pull strategy
• Push strategy
• ..by building strong
consumer demand for a
manufacturer will force
channel members to
• ..requires more direct
involvement by the
channel members in the
use of promotional
strategies to secure
strong channel member
Pull promotions and channels
• Some manufacturers rely almost entirely on
promotion in the form of advertising to their target
markets, to “pull” their products through the channel.
• Hence, indirectly secure channel member
• The belief underlying this pull strategy is that by
building strong customer demand for a product, the
manufacturers will force channel members to
automatically promote the manufacturer’s products.
-source: Eitan Gerstner and James D. Hess, “Pull promotions and
channels coordination,” Marketing Science, Winter 1995, pp.43-60
Basic push promotional strategies in
Displays and selling aids
Contests and incentives
“kinder and gentler” push
• Cooperative advertising-50:50, 3% allowance
• Promotional allowance-cash back payment.
• Displays and selling aids-promotional kits,
special in-store displays, and mailing pieces
• In-store promotions-short-term events, Vidal
• Contests and incentives
• Special promotional deals-catch-all category
promotional deals: discounts, (buy one get
one free, rebates, coupons)
• ..are more common for wholesale
channel members than for retail.
• But,…should not be narrowly confined
to being merely a “sales pitch” for the
particular manufacturer’s product.
• Rather, …worthy of the name should
help the channel members not only sell
more but to improve their overall
businesses as well.
• …are often used by manufacturers as a
device to increase channel members’
• The key to using such sales quotas
successfully is to present them in a
constructive and informative manner
rather than in a coercive way.
• …often used by manufacturer to help focus
channel member’s attention on the
manufacturer’s product and to assist the
channel members in their selling efforts.
• The use of missionary salespeople can be
very effective if channel members want the
help that is offered.
• But, if the missionary salespeople do not take
up too much of the channel member’s time.
• …have a chance to exhibit their
products and to show off the caliber of
their organizations provide an
opportunity to interact with channel
• … foster a sense of pride in channel
members who carry the manufacturer’s
Push marketing strategies
• Not “down the throats”
• Push strategy is one of mutual effort and
cooperation between the manufacturer and
channel members in the development and
implementation of promotional strategies.
• In this sense, the manufacturer does not push
channel members into promoting its product,
but instead seeks their participation and
cooperation to provide effective promotional
strategies that will be mutually beneficial to
the manufacturer and the channel members.
-source: Donald R. Glover, “Distributor attitudes toward manufacturer-sponsored
promotions,” Industrial Marketing Management, 1991, pp.241-249
Shortcomings with push
• Frequent promotion deals erode consumer franchises for
existing manufacturer brands, add to the expense of
establishing new brands, and increase consumer price
• Frequent discounts to channel members offered on products
used in trade deals result in deal-to-deal purchasing by
channel members and hence uneven factory shipments and
increased production costs.
• Trade buyers often take advantage of discounts but fail to
provide the merchandising support called for and do not pass
all price reductions through to consumers.
• Some channel members respond to deals by purchasing well
above their own requirements and reselling the excess deal
merchandise to other retailers at a profit.
Rule of thumb
• The effectiveness of the manufacturer’s
overall promotional strategy is
dependent upon how skillful the
manufacturer is in securing cooperation
from independent channel members in
the promotion of products.
Channel Member Relationship
• Any marketing mix strategies calling for
channel member cooperation should not be
haphazard one-shot, quick-fix approaches.
• Rather, strategies that involve channel
members stand a higher probability of being
favorably received by the channel members
when they are part of an overall program of
manufacturer support of channel member
• Distribution programming and the
partnerships/strategic alliances can be very
valuable in this regard.