Organic Chemistry - Paint Valley Local Schools Home

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Transcript Organic Chemistry - Paint Valley Local Schools Home

Organic
Chemistry
(Chapter 3)
Organic chemistry is the
chemistry of carbon
compounds. Biochemistry is
the study of carbon
compounds that crawl.
Organic Compounds - have carbon bonded to other atoms and
determine structure/function of living things
Inorganic Compounds - do not contain carbon and hydrogen together
(salt)
Some organic molecules
Attached to the carbon skeleton is a FUNCTIONAL
GROUP - which is the area that participates in
chemical reactions
alcohols
acids
bases
Also....
ALKANE
consists of only carbon to carbon single bonds C- C- C -C -C
ALKENE
consists of at least one carbon to carbon double bond C = C - C
ALKYNE
consists of at least one carbon to carbon triple bond
The general structure of an α-amino acid, with
the amino group on the left and the carboxyl group on
the right
One carbon chain, single bonds; 2 functional groups
ISOMERS – molecules with the same molecular formula, but
different arrangement of atoms
Reaction Types
•Hydrolysis - break down
compounds by adding water
•Dehydration - two
components brought
together,
produces
H2O
Oxidation
Involves Loss
Reduction Involves Gain
Endergonic
- requires the
OIL RIG
input of energy
Exergonic - releases energy
Redox - electron transfer
•
•
•
MACROMOLECULES - Monomers link together to form
polymers
Dehydration reaction – water is removed, joins monomers
together
Hydrolysis – water attaches to a polymer and breaks it into
smaller units
Redox Reactions Explained
Some Molecules
Not a
dehydration
reaction
MACROMOLECULES important to life
1.
2.
3.
4.
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
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1. CARBOHYDRATES
monosaccharides - simple ring sugars, glucose and fructose
disaccharides - two monosaccharides combined, sucrose and
lactose
polysaccharides - polymers (long chains of repeating units) of
monosaccharides
starch (plants) and glycogen (animals) are energy storage
polymers
cellulose & chitin are structural polymers
•
•
•
•
•
2. Lipids
Hydrophobic (insoluble in water)
Used for insulation and long term energy storage (fat)*
Fats* & Oils are made of subunits – glycerol and fatty acids
Waxes – mainly used for covering and protection
Phospholipids Important structural
component of the cell
membrane
Steroids - cholesterol & sex hormones (estrogen &
testosterone) – made of 4 fused rings
Saturated fats contain no double bonds, solid at room
temperature;
Unsaturated have double bonds that “kink” the molecule, liquid at
room temperature
Lipids and Fatty Acids
3. Proteins
Polymers made of amino acids, which are joined by peptide
bonds - proteins are also called polypeptides
Amino acids form a wide variety of structures, mainly building
blocks for living tissue
Support | Enzymes | Transport | Defense | Hormones | Motion
Proteins can be denatured, heat causes it to lose its
shape, and its functionality (More on enzymes later
There are 20 known amino acids
Proteins
Proteins have four shapes
1. Primary Structure - sequence of amino acids that form the polypeptide
chain
2. Secondary Structure - Parts of the polypeptide fold into local patterns
(alpha helix or pleated sheet)
3. Tertiary Structure - the overall 3D shape (globular or fibrous)
4. Quaternary Structure - consists of two or more polypeptide chains or
subunits
Nucleic Acids
• Informational polymers made of individual nucleotides
• DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) & RNA (ribonucleic acid)
Each nucleotide consists of:
1. A sugar (deoxyribose or ribose)2. A phosphate3. A nitrogen
base
- adenine
- thymine
- guanine
cytosine
- uracil (in RNA)
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) - high energy molecule that
contains two phosphate bonds that are easily broken to
release energy (this energy drives the reactions in our bodies)
MATCHING
a. carbohydrate
c. protein
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
b. lipids
d. nucleic acids
contains adenine and thymine
lactose
chains of amino acids
long term energy storage
cholesterol
chains of fatty acids and glycerol
plant cell walls