Social Studies 9

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Transcript Social Studies 9

Unit 8 – Arrival in Canada
SECTION 7
Introduction
 William of Orange had just
taken over the thrown of
England
 The previous king, King James
had fled to France and joined
the army
 King William joins the league
of Augsburg against France
Introduction
 King William and Britain
were protestant
 King James and France were
Catholic
 This also contributed to the
reasons to fight in the new
world
Allies
English Allies
French Allies
Great britain
Spanish
Iroquois
Abenaki
Muscogee
Pennacook
Chickasaw
Caughnawaga Mohawk
Yamasee
Choctaw
British America
Timucua
Apalachee
Natchez
New France
Many Indian Tribes sided with European colonies because the Europeans
promised they would help them fight their native enemies. The Europeans also
promised land and other items
War Begins
 French and English
colonists already despised
each other before King
James’s exile
 In June 1689 several
hundred Indians under
French command attacked
the British city of Dover
 This would start a 9 year
war
War Begins
 The English attacked
Acadia and captured
it
 The French rallied
under Count de
Frontenac
 He sent out 3 war
parties in 1690
War begins
 The first party destroyed Schenectady
 The second burned the settlement of salmon falls
 The third forced Fort Loyal to surrender
War under Way
 Most battles by both sides
were surprise attacks by
Indians which were led by
British or French leaders
 Most battles were small
skirmishes and didn’t last
long
 The French and their
Indian allies won the most
land and battles
War at its End
 The war was finally
ended in 1697 with the
treaty of Ryswick
 A status quo ante bellum
was established
 Peace didn’t last long
and 5 years later another
war had begun
Queen Anne's War
 The Queen Anne’s War
was the N. American
war of the Spanish
Succession
 It Started in 1702 and
ended in 1713
 It ended with the treaty
of Utrecht
Queen Anne's War
 They fought on 3 fronts
 English fought with the
French in Acadia
 Spanish fought the
English in Florida
 French battled with the
English in Newfoundland
Acadia
 Port Royal was the
Centre of Nova Scotia
it gave control of the
rich fishing waters of
the Grand Banks
 In 1704 the Major
Benjamin Church of
the British created a
blockade of Port
Royal but later left for
Boston
Acadia
 A second and third
attempt at Port Royal
both failed
 Daniel d’Auger de
Subercase defended
port Royal from John
March and Colonel
Francis Wainwright
Acadia
 On the 4th attempt
British attacked on
September 24 1710
 They attacked with 36
ships and 2000 men
 The French lasted 8 days
but then surrendered to
the power of Britain
 This ended French rule
of Acadia
Spanish and English war
 The war was fought in
Florida and
Carolina
 Pierre Le Moyne
d’Iberville new that
control of the Mississippi
would greatly help trade
 This land was controlled
by the English
Spanish and English War
 Iberville convinced the
Spanish to arm some
Indians and make an
attack on the English
 The English received
warning and met them at
flint river and wiped 500
Spanish led Indians
Spanish and English war
 The war was now under
way
 The English countered
under governor Moore with
500 English and 300
Indians
 They attacked St.
Augustine and burnt it to
the ground
 They were unable to take
the main fortress and were
sent back by Spanish from
Havana
Spanish and English war
 The Apalachee and
Timucua indians
were wiped out by
Moore
 These raids were
known as the
Apalachee
Massacre
English battle for Newfoundland
 John Leake attacked
several small towns but
did not attack the
French fortress
Plaisance
 in 1705 Daniel d’Auger
de Subercase attacked
some English
settlement and
unsuccessfully besieged
fort William
English battle for Newfoundland
 In 1706 the English sent
a fleet of ships that
destroyed French
fishing posts
 In 1708 the French
Canadians, and
Mi'kmaq captured fort
St. john but later
abandoned it
Peace again
 After all the fighting another treaty was signed
 The treaty of Utrecht was signed in 1713
 The British gained Acadia, Newfoundland and the
Hudson bay region
Peace again
 The French remained in
control of all the islands
in the gulf of saint
Lawrence and held rights
to fish in the area and to
dry fish on the northern
shore of Newfoundland
 Although another treaty
was signed there was still
war in the future for
England and France
Fortress of Louisburg
 After the treaty was
signed the French wanted
to make sure they were
defended from attacks
further inland
 The fortress of Louisburg
was built to prevent the
British from attacking by
ship down the St.
Lawrence
Fortress of Louisburg
 The French's new fortress
was poorly built
 It took over 20 years to build
and the massive walls could
easily be destroyed by the
British's modern canons
 the fortress was also built in
the wrong spot. It was not
built on a hill but
surrounding hills could
easily attack it