ceellis.aurorak12.org

download report

Transcript ceellis.aurorak12.org

Lesson 6: Nutrition 101
The Basics
What is Your Definition of Nutrition?
• Nutrition comes from the Latin word nutritus
which means to nurture or nourish.
• Nutrition means to nourish your body through
the foods you eat.
• It is all the processes involved in breaking
down food, digesting it, absorbing it,
transporting and metabolizing it and then
excreting it.
• It is the foundation of your health!
Calories
Calories are energy!
The official definition is the amount of
energy or “heat” it takes to raise 1 gram
of water by one degree Celsius.
How Many Calories Do Teens Need?
• Very Individualized
– Very active teen could need 4,000
– Couch potato 2,200
• Based on physical size and activity level
• In general:
– Girls need 2,200 a day
– Boys need 2,500 – 3,000
• The key is to listen to your body
Needs are Based on Energy Balance
• Balancing calories you consume with the ones
you burn off
• If food intake = amount burned then your
weight will remain the same
• If you take in 500 more calories than you burn
off – you will gain weight
• If you take in 500 less calories than you burn off
– you will lose weight
If you continuously take in more
calories than you burn off
Obesity Can Occur
Obesity
The state of being way
above one’s ideal body
weight (usually 20% or
more).
Determined by Your BMI Score
• BMI is Body Mass Index
• Calculation of your weight related to
your height
• A BMI score of 30 or more is
considered obese
• Correlates strongly with percent body
fat
Word of Caution
Do you
think
this man
is obese?
His BMI
is over 30
because
he is all
muscle!
If you continuously burn off more
calories than you take in
Weight Loss Will Occur
Anorexia Nervosa
If a person strives to lose
too much weight they can
become anorexic
FAD Diets
• Diet trend that usually fades
– Example is the Atkins Diet or high
protein diet
• Usually provide short-term weight
loss
• Can lead to yo-yo dieting
• Doesn’t teach you to eat right
Can you name
some current
FAD diets?
Macronutrients
• Macro means large
– These nutrients are needed in the
largest quantity in the body
• Energy-yielding nutrients:
– Carbohydrates
– Protein
– Fats
Calories Per Gram
• 1 gram of carbohydrate = 4 calories
• 1 gram of protein = 4 calories
• 1 gram of fat = 9 calories
– Fat yields the most calories
which is why we want to eat less
of it
Carbohydrates
• A food compound with carbon (carbo)and
water (hydrate)molecules
• Primary source of energy for the brain and
body
• High in “B vitamins” for energy
• Primary function is to produce energy
• 50 – 60% of your diet
Simple Carbohydrates
• Simple sugars or sweeteners
• Consist of monosaccharide's (one sugar)
or disaccharides (two sugars)
• Includes; table sugars, milk, honey, fruit
and high fructose corn syrup
• They are broken down into glucose and
absorbed quickly into the bloodstream for
quick energy.
Simple Sugars
• Cause the sugar “crash”
• Simple sugars raise blood sugar levels really
high
– Takes a lot of insulin to bring them back to
normal range
• Generally insulin pushes blood sugars down too
low
– Result is low blood sugar
– Causes tiredness, moodiness and crankiness
Complex Carbohydrates
• Also known as starches
• Consist of three or more sugar molecules
• Examples include beans, whole grains,
starchy vegetables (peas, corn and
potatoes)
• Contain fiber, which slows the absorption
of sugar into the bloodstream
Fiber
• Found only in plant foods.
• Part of the plant that is not digested (usually the skin or cell wall).
• Best sources include beans, whole grains, fruits and vegetables and
nuts and seeds.
• They take longer to chew, so makes you feel fuller faster.
• Carries toxins out of your body to help protect you from disease.
• Keeps you “regular” or keeps your digestive system on track.
• Lowers cholesterol and blood sugar levels.
Food Fact: Fiber
Americans consume only
about 10% of the fiber that
they did 100 years ago. This
is mostly due to the
refinement of grains.
Protein
• Made of amino acid chains (organic compounds)
– Building blocks of cells
• There are 20 different amino acids that form a
chain
• Your body can make all but 9 of the 20 amino
acids, so they must be obtained from food
• 10-20% of meals should come from protein foods
Protein – Primary Functions
• The primary function of proteins is to
build things:
– Build our cells
– Build our muscles
– Build our bones
– Build our organs
– Build our skin
Protein – Other Important Functions
• Part of every cell
– Half of our “water-free”
body weight is protein
– Half is in our muscles
• Key component in growth
• Important to teens
because of rapid growth
• Regulates hormones
• Part of enzymes (help
with digestion)
• Helps balance fluids in
the body
• Transports vitamins,
minerals and oxygen
around the blood
• Contains antibodies –
protects against disease
Food Fact: Protein
The human body contains
10,000 to 50,000 different
kinds of proteins.
Best Sources of Protein
Almost every food has at
least a small amount of
protein in it.
• Beans – all kinds
• Lentils
• Tofu
• Meat or meat alternatives
• Barley
• Broccoli and other
vegetables
• Cheese
• Whole grains
Fruits and fats generally do
not contain protein.
Food For Thought:
Protein deficiency is rare in the
US. In fact, the average American
consumes about 200-300% of the
amount of protein they need a
day.
Fats
Functions:
Known as
Lipids
• Used as an energy source.
Found
mostly in the
body as
triglycerides
• Supports cell growth.
• Help absorb vitamins.
• Provides fullness.
• Protects organs from
damage.
• Keeps your body warm.
• Helps with hormone
production.
Types of Fat
Saturated Fat
Unsaturated Fat
• Found in animal
foods (meat, milk,
eggs and cheese)
and tropical oils.
• Found in
vegetable oils,
nuts and seeds
and olive oils.
Good Choice Fats
Omega 3’s
• Polyunsaturated Fats
– Liquid at room temperature
• Essential Fats
– Your body cannot make them
– Must be eaten in your diet
Good Choice Fats
Omega 6’s
• Plenty of these in food
– Found in vegetable oils
•
•
•
•
Corn oil
Safflower oil
Sunflower oil
Canola oil
Omega’s Prevent Heart Disease
• Reduce platelet aggregation
• Reduces inflammation
• Improves blood flow
• Increases the production of
prostaglandins
Prostaglandins:
• Hormone-like substances
that regulate:
 Blood pressure
 Blood clotting
 Nerves
Other Omega Benefits
• Gives you brain power!
• Reduces inflammation
associated with
arthritis and other
joint disorders.
• Helps fight allergies.
• Supports kidney
function.
• Helps with digestion.
• Involved in the
production of other
hormones.
AND…….FATTY FISH
SMALL
FISH IS
BEST!
Best Sources of Omega 3’s
Sources
Sources
Sources
Sources
Flaxseeds
Cabbage
Soybeans
Kale
Walnuts
Cloves
Tofu
Collard
Greens
Cauliflower
Mustard Seeds Dark Leafy
Vegetables
Brussels
Sprouts
Mercury in Fish
Low
Moderate
High
Salmon
Cod
Tuna
Herring
Halibut
Shrimp
Scallops
Which Foods Contain The
Most Omega 3’s?
Flaxseeds
Which Food Contains the
Least Amount of Omega 3’s?
Olive Oil