Using Nvivo for qualitative data analysis

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Transcript Using Nvivo for qualitative data analysis

Using Nvivo for qualitative
data analysis
Sue Jones
Workshop 1
What is Nvivo?
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Software that facilitates the analysis of
qualitative data
Become familiar
with the software
Become familiar with
the coding of
qualitative data
It doesn’t do the analysis for you
The workshops
Week 1
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Coding interview
data
Navigating through
Nvivo 8
Week 2
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Project walk through
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Enter data
Code data
Restructure analysis
Explore analysis
Qualitative data
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Qualitative data can take many forms
Interview transcripts
Transcripts of discussions
Transcripts from school lessons or any real life setting
Field notes
Observation records
Video data
Photographs
Children’s drawings
Children’s written texts
The workshop will focus on coding
from interview transcripts
Interview data isn’t neat
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When girls come into school they are really quite ready just to sit
down and to learn
Well what can I say about Jade –she just does not see the
importance of school at all
I think girls will learn which ever way you teach them, they’re more
accommodating than boys.
I don't think men have the same sense of urgency as women
Boys would much sooner be using their bodies physically.... They're
not nearly so keen on sitting and looking at books
Emily is very lively and enthusiastic and about all of her school work
James is interested in everything that we do, he has an incredible
facility with language and I have never had a child in my class who
could write such fantastic stories he can also concentrate pretty well
Well of course I'm one of these women who think men basically are
lazy toads
Interview data isn’t neat
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People don’t always know what they
think
People think out loud
The interview shapes their ideas
People are naturally contradictory
The data is often conflicting and
difficult to categorise
Interview data is rich
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You can explore opinions and attitudes
 Tell me more
 Do you mean...
 Why and how questions
You can be faithful to the tentative, speculative
nature of people’s responses
You can reflect on the emergent, fluid nature of
people’s ideas rather than fixing them in stone
You can explore the creation of meaning
You can pick up on recurrent themes and ideas
You can explore what is informing their ideas
The Grounded Theory
Approach
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Developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960’s
Theory emerges from the data (inductive)
It is rigorous and time consuming
Creation of codes that classify the data for minute details
(open coding)
This is iterative, emergent and in the initial stages highly
fluid
Through analysis codes will be merged, split, clustered
and refined (axial coding)
When no new codes emerge and all new data can be
classified using existing codes the coding frame is said
to be saturated
Coding data
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When girls come into school they are really quite ready just to sit
down and to learn
(girls as passive), (readiness for school), (school as passive)
I don't think men have the same sense of urgency as women
(women as driven) (gender polarising)
Emma is very lively and enthusiastic and about all of her school work
(girls and HA as active learners), (girls and HA as engaged)
(girls and HA as enthusiastic)
I think girls will learn which ever way you teach them, they’re more
accommodating than boys.
(girls don’t need strategies), (girls as accommodating)
Boys would much sooner be using their bodies physically.... they're
not nearly so keen on sitting and looking at books
(boys as active), (boys and literacy)
Coding
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In pairs read the interview creating codes as you go
Record your codes
Make notes of any discussions you have about the
phrasing of a code, or about the meanings in the
interview
Compare your codes with another pair
The coding process
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Interview 1: Start the process of open
coding
Axial coding may start to emerge
Keep memos – personal notes about
possible coding structures, links to the
reading, theoretical echoes
Capture Interview 1: Vertical coding
The coding process
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Interview 2: How well do existing codes capture interview 2?
Redefine codes, create new codes, merge and split codes
(axiel coding)
In the light of these changes revisit interview 1(iterative
process)
Capture interview 2
Check codes and coding structure are faithful to both
interviews
Repeat process for subsequent interviews – redefining,
creating, changing and altering as you go
Keep revisiting previously analysed interviews to check the
codes and the emerging coding frame still captures their
meanings
The coding process
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A point is reached where every new interview is captured
within the existing codes and coding frame (saturation)
Horizontal coding of themes reflected across the interviews
Vertical coding to account for individual perspectives
Write definitions for every code and every cluster of codes
Identify and describe links and relationships between
codes
Finally consider all of this in the light of existing theory and
literature
Coding
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Remember - coding frames emerge from hours of
analysis.
In the early stages of analysis these codes are fluid,
changing and emerging
Some research projects involve teams of coders, for
whom part of the process will involve developing inter
coder reliability
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How similar or different were your codes? – Does it
matter ?
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What does this tell you about analysing qualitative
data?