Transcript Document

Methods of training 1
Methods of training
Methods of training 2
What you will learn about
in this topic:
1. Methods of training
2. What training develops
3. How each method works
Methods of training 3
Learning objectives
By the end of this presentation you
should be able to:
• Understand the different types of
training methods
• Describe what each training method
• Explain how to carry out each of the
different methods
Methods of training 4
Methods of training
Each of the following methods of
training work the body differently:
• Interval training • Weight training
• Cross training
• Fartlek training
• Circuit training
• Continuous
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Interval training
Interval training involves periods
of exercise followed by periods of
There are two types of interval:
1. Short
2. Long
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This method can be adapted to
develop different types of fitness.
Short bursts of
pace, using
needed in games
play, uses short
Methods of training 7
Prolonged moderate to hard pace,
using aerobic respiration, needed in
middle-distance running events,
uses long interval training.
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Interval training is suited to
individuals working on their own,
small groups of people and larger
numbers such as teams.
It is intensive and should be
performed with accuracy and at
competition pace.
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The times of rest allow performers
to regain energy so they do not
become too tired to carry on
The times of exercise are repeated
to form repetitions. Four or five
repetitions make up a set. There
may be four or five sets in a
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1. Make a list of three potential
benefits and three disadvantages
of interval training.
2. Add an explanation to each of
the benefits and disadvantages
you have listed and link them to
specific sports examples.
Methods of training 11
Continuous training
The continuous training method
exercises the body at a moderate
rate, keeping
the pulse at a
constant level
above the
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This training works the body
aerobically and keeps the pulse at a
moderate to high rate. Its effect is
to improve the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems.
After a gradual warm-up, the person
training works their body at a
moderate level throughout the
Methods of training 13
The heart rate is above 60 per cent
of its maximum but below 80 per
cent. By keeping in this zone the
work is aerobic and can carry on for
a long time.
Continuous training suits those new
to training or those recovering from
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At the start of a season, continuous
training can help to re-establish the
cardiorespiratory levels.
At this level, the work is moderate
but can be adapted to be harder at
a later time.
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Circuit training
Circuit training is a series of
exercises, completed for a certain
amount of time, one after the
another, developing aerobic and
anaerobic respiration.
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When using large muscle groups at
each station, aerobic respiration is
in operation and this will develop
the cardiovascular system.
If exercising small muscle groups in
turn (such as the biceps and
triceps), this is anaerobic, which
builds strength.
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A circuit is made up of several
activities. Each activity is given its
own space (a station) in the gym or
sports hall.
Each activity is completed as many
times as possible. These are called
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How many of the following circuit
training activities can you name?
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There is a set time for each activity,
usually between 30 and 60 seconds.
In this time as many repetitions of
the activity are performed as
When all exercises at each station
have been completed, the circuit is
Methods of training 21
By repeating the circuit or adding
exercises, the session increases in
For general fitness the sequence of
exercises works different muscle
groups at each station.
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Weight training
Weight training involves shifting
weight to increase the strength of
muscles, using a programme of
repetitions and sets. There are two
types of weight training:
1. Machine weights
2. Free weights
Methods of training 23
Before deciding on the amount of
weights and which weight training
method is suitable for them, the
performer will need to know what
they want to achieve.
They will need to know if they want
to achieve aerobic (endurance) or
anaerobic (strength) development.
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Machine weights are technically
designed to move in the correct way
and are
sizes of
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They are safe as they are steady
and do not vary position apart from
the designed range. This also has
the effect of not training the
stabilizing muscles that may be
needed for a sport.
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They usually have supports and
belts to make sure the body is
prepared in the correct position to
shift the weight.
However, a drawback is that extra
weights cannot be added to the
machines. This limits their use for
the advanced performer.
Methods of training 27
Free weights can be used in a
weight-training programme.
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The use of free weights is
specialized and needs lots of
training so that the performer works
Many top sportspeople use free
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A person training with heavy
weights must always use a spotter;
this is a person who helps steady
the performer and is ready to catch
the bar or assist if the performer is
Methods of training 30
Free weights:
More weight can
be easily added
Injury can occur
due to poor
stance and
Provide a wider
range of exercise
than machines
A spotter is
required if heavy
weights are used
Skill is needed to
life heavy
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Fartlek training
Fartlek training involves exercise,
often running, varying in time,
distance and effort.
Fartlek is a Swedish word meaning
‘speed play’.
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Due to the changes of intensity of
the exercises, Fartlek training works
on both aerobic and anaerobic
The athlete then becomes
increasingly capable of meeting the
changes of pace in a competition or
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Sprints, jogs and runs make up the
session. These may have times set
for them or may be for a certain
Methods of training 34
An example of a Fartlek training
Methods of training 35
The session can be continuous with
periods of intense work followed by
rest periods or less strenuous
exercise easier work, which gives
the body a chance to recover.
Methods of training 36
Cross training
Cross training combines different
methods of training and is adaptable
to a variety of situations.
Each activity improves different
muscle groups giving a wide range
of development for the body.
Methods of training 37
By changing the activity, parts of
the body are able to rest,
preventing over-use injury.
The variety of sessions can also
make training more interesting.
Cross training can be adapted to
suit individuals: a person may
choose to run, play a game or do
some aerobics work, for instance.
Methods of training 38
As cross training
can be used for
developing general
fitness, this
method allows
individuals to work
on their own or in
a group.
Methods of training 39
For those working in a group, as the
activities change the groupings can
change. This can widen the number
of people a person knows as they
train with a different group for each
Weather does not stop training as
the sessions can be changed: an
indoor session can be completed
instead of an outdoor one.
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Exam questions
1. What type of training would
be most useful for a team sports
athlete to increase their
stamina? Explain your answer.
Methods of training 41
2. Which of the following are
types of training?
A. Fartlek, continuous, contemptuous,
cross, aptitude
B. Continuous, Fartlek, weight, cross,
C. Potential, circuit, weight, cross,
Fartlek, interval
D. Circuit, continuous, weight, cross,
Methods of training 42
What you have learnt
in this topic:
1. Methods of training
2. What training develops
3. How each method works
Methods of training 43
Learning objectives
You should now be able to:
• Understand the different types of
training methods
• Describe what each training method
• Explain how to carry out each of the
different methods