Transcript Slide 1

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
Exceptional Children Division
Universal Strategies in the Classroom
• Teach Attention Signal
• Establish Behavioral Expectations/Rules
• Develop Schedule
• Teach Routines
• Give Precorrects
• Encourage Expected Behavior
• Correct Student Behavior Errors
Teach Attention Signal
• Always use a simple portable cue to
prompt students to listen.
• Avoid starting instruction until all
students are attending
• Reinforce students who attend
• Provide specific verbal praise to peers
to redirect students
• Consistency, consistency, consistency!
Establish Behavioral Expectations & Rules
• Use School-wide Expectations as Basis for
Classroom Rules
• Clearly and Positively Stated
• State in Observable Terms
• Posted and Referred to Frequently
• Teach Explicitly to FLUENCY
• Reinforce Consistently
Teaching Effective Rules
• Tell-Show-Practice
• Give Positive Reinforcement for
Appropriate Student Use
• Consider Consequences for Errors
– re-teach
– redirect
– time to “Cool Down”
• Reflect! Are the Rules Working? Why or
Why Not?
Teaching Lessons on
Teach your
before the
activity or
transition begins.
Monitor student
by circulating
and visually
Provide feedback
during the
activity and
at the conclusion
of the activity.
Begin the cycle again for
the next activity.
Develop Classroom Schedule
• Establish predictable schedules
– illustrate with icons, time, etc.
• Schedule non-instruction time
– administration time
– personal time
• Evaluate the variety and time for each
Sample Schedule
5 Min
10 Min
10 Min
25 Min
10 Min
5 Min
Teacher Directed Review of
Previous Concepts
Teacher Directed New Concepts
Teacher Directed Guided Practice
Independent Work
Teacher Directed Guided Practice
and Review
Homework Review
Effective Routines - Rationale
•The number one problem in the
classroom is not discipline; it is
the lack of procedures and
routines. A vast majority of the
classroom are caused by the
failure of students to follow
procedures and routines.
•-Harry Wong
Teach Routines
• Think through and establish procedures
for transition times and basic regularly
scheduled activities
• Establish clear expectations for student
behavior and clear expectations for adult
• Plan, Post and Teach!
– Tell-Show-Practice-Feedback loop
– Consistently teach all day, every day
• Reflect: Are routines working? Why or why not?
Give Precorrects
• Precorrects function as reminders
• Opportunities to practice
• Prompt for expected behavior
• Especially helpful before teacher
anticipates behavior learning errors
Precorrect Examples
• “ Remember, before you leave
class, collect all your materials,
put your papers in the bin, and
quietly walk out of the room.”
• “ Sam, show us how to be
respectful and line up quietly for
Encourage Expected Behaviors
• Providing praise for correct academic
• responses and appropriate social
• leads to:
– Increases in student correct responses
– Increases in on task behavior
– Decreases in disruptive behaviors
• -Sutherland, 2000
Positive Feedback
Feedback should be:
Specific and descriptive
Given in a manner that fits your style
Ratio of Interactions
•Teachers should strive to keep a 4:1
ratio of positive-to-negative statements
– Each time you have a negative interaction
with a student, tell yourself you owe that
student 4 positive interactions
– Identify specific times during the day you
will give positive feedback
– Schedule individual conference time
– Scan the room searching for appropriate
– Engage in frequent positive interactions
with all students
Examples of Non-Verbal Feedback
Pat on the back
Hug (when and where
Effective Reinforcement Strategies
Behavior(s) are determined and taught
Reinforcement is contingent upon appropriate
Be generous with reinforcers at the beginning
Reward class when:
Students who have not exhibited behavior in the past
are exhibiting the behavior now.
Students who have exhibited behaviors in the past
continue to exhibit them.
Components of An Effective
Teaching Plan
• Define classroom rules based on school-wide
• Outline routines (attention signal, etc)
• Establish schedule for teaching routines and
• Decide strategies for encouraging
appropriate student behavior and
discouraging problem behavior
• Plan a variety of instructional strategies
• Establish effective classroom environment
Correct Student Behavior Errors
• “Emotion Free” response
• More effective if students have been
taught expected behaviors
• Minimize attention other than signal of
• Praise for appropriate behavior
Correct Student Behavior Errors
Steps to Take
1. Signal that an error has occurred
Refer to rules: "We respect others in this
room and that means not using put downs.”
2. Ask for an alternative appropriate
"How can you show respect and
still get your point across?"
3. Provide an opportunity to practice the
skill and provide verbal feedback
"That's much better, thank you for showing
respect toward others.”
Classroom Management Strategies
• Physical arrangement of classroom
• Positive teacher-student interactions
• More reinforcement strategies
• Techniques to improve compliance
• Active participation
• Increasing Positive Interactions
• Based on the concept that most students
want and need adult attention.
• Leads students to feel like valued
members of the learning community
Do Problem Students Deserve
Positive Attention?
• Students are not equal.
• Some have received a lot of attention from
• Some have received very little attention.
• Many have only received negative
What Do You Do When You Just
Don’t Like the Student?
• Be professional!
Who’s In Charge of the Mood
of the Classroom?
Lottery Tickets
• Determine the behavior(s) you want to
• Teach the behavior to the students
• Give the student a ticket when you see the
• Have student write his/her name on ticket
• and put ticket in box/bin.
• At a designated time, draw a ticket out of
the bin and present a reinforcer to the
student whose name is on the ticket.
Techniques to Improve Compliance
Do not use a question format
Get up close
Use a quiet voice
Look ‘em in the eyes
Give them time
Don’t give multiple requests
Make more start requests
Verbally reinforce compliance
Get up and move
Increasing Opportunities to
Respond ~ Active Participation
• Encourages everyone to become
involved in learning
• Increases rate of responses of all
• Increases attainment of material
• Allows reluctant learners a secure
environment to practice
• Decreases inappropriate or off task
Practice Time!
• Students should be reinforced at a rate of
_____ to ______.
– Everyone.
• Universal strategies used in classroom
management are to teach rules and
– Everyone.
• PBS stands for_________________.
– Everyone.
Sustaining and Maintaining
Effective Classroom Practices
Ongoing staff development
Effective teaching plan
Peer coaching
Supportive environment
Team based problem solving
• Positive parent contact
Effective Instruction
Effective instruction
increases the likelihood
of correct student
Correct responding is
correlated with positive
teacher interactions
Leading to increased academic achievement
of students and positive behavioral exchanges
between students and teachers
Gunter, Hummel, & Venn, 1998