Chapter 1: The Nature of Information Technology Projects

download report

Transcript Chapter 1: The Nature of Information Technology Projects

IT Project Quality
Management
1-1
Quality
• “an inherent or distinguishing characteristic ;
a property; having a high degree of
excellence”
• “fitness for use”
• “conformance to requirements”
• dependent on needs and expectations of
customer
1-2
Project Quality Management (PQM) PMBOK
• The processes required to ensure that the
project will satisfy the needs for which it was
undertaken. It includes all activities of the
overall management function that determine
the quality policy, objectives, and
responsibility and implements them by means
of quality planning, quality assurance, quality
control, and quality improvement within the
quality system.
1-3
PMBOK – Project Quality
Management Process
• Quality Planning
– Determining which quality standards are important
and how they will be met.
• Quality Assurance
– Evaluating overall project performance to ensure
quality standards are being met.
• Quality Control
– Monitoring the activities and results of the project
to ensure that the project complies with the quality
standards.
1-4
PQM
• Focuses on project’s products
– project’s most important product is the information
system solution that the project team must deliver
• Focuses on project process
– the activities, methods, materials, and
measurements used to produce the product or
service
– part of a quality chain where outputs of one
process serve as inputs to other project
management processes
1-5
Programs & People
• ISO Certification
• Six Sigma initiatives
• Awards
– Deming Prize
– Malcolm Badridge National Quality
Award
•
•
•
•
•
Shewhart
Deming
Juran
Ishikawa
Crosby
• Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
1-6
The Quality Movement
• Early humankind
– Quality = Survival
• Craftsmanship
– In the middle ages guilds regulated:
• Who could sell what in a particular town
• Ensured standardized pricing and quality
• Supported members & their families when members
could no longer work
• Regulated forms of labor
– Masters – owned the shop
– Apprentices – were bound to a master & learned the trade
– Journeymen – completed training & waiting for a job
opening!
1-7
The Quality Movement
• The Industrial Revolution
– Eli Whitney (1765 – 1825)
• Invented the cotton gin
• But also invented mass production
– In 1798 received $134,000 from the US Government to
deliver 10,000 rifles within 2 years
– Shortage of gunsmiths
– Developed the manufactory where machines could build
interchangeable parts and men could learn to operate the
machines
– Took 10 years to deliver the last rifle, but proved that the
concept worked!
1-8
The Quality Movement
• Scientific Management - Fredrick W. Taylor (1856
– 1915)
– Management would set arbitrary rules of thumb
• Workers produced so much each day – no more, no less
– Believed the production process could be more efficient and
employed “Scientific Management”
• Break a task down into smaller tasks & study it to find the
best and most efficient way of doing it
• Time – motion studies using stopwatch
– Did not sit well with labor unions because many ignored the
human factors & believed profits could be increased by
speeding up the workers
1-9
The Quality Movement
• Walter A. Shewhart (1891 – 1967)
– Worked for Western Electric Company (Bell
Telephones
– Quality improvements needed for underground
equipment
– Applied statistical theory to control production
processes
1-10
Quality Control Charts and the Seven
Run Rule
• A control chart is a graphic display of data
that illustrates the results of a process over
time. It helps prevent defects and allows you
to determine whether a process is in control
or out of control
• The seven run rule states that if seven data
points in a row are all below the mean,
above, the mean, or increasing or
decreasing, then the process needs to be
examined for non-random problems
1-11
Sample Quality Control Chart
1-12
The Quality Movement
• W. Edwards Deming (1900 – 1993)
– Worked with Shewhart at Western Electric
Hawthorne Plant in Chicago, IL in the 1920s
– Management treated the worker as a cog in the
machinery
– Final inspection used to control quality
• Worker not directly responsible
• Scrap & rework reduced per piece rate
– Invited to give series of day-long lectures in Japan
in the 1950s
– The rest is history…
1-13
Deming’s 14 Points
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Create constancy of purpose toward improvement of
products and services, with the aim to become
competitive and to stay in business, and to provide jobs.
Adopt the new philosophy. We are in a new economic
arena. Western management must awaken to the
challenge, must learn their responsibilities, and take on
leadership for change.
Cease dependencies on inspection to achieve quality.
Eliminate the need for inspection on a mass basis by
building quality into the product in the first place.
End the practice of awarding business on the basis of
price tag. Instead minimize total cost. Move toward a
single supplier for any one item, on a long-term
relationship of loyalty and trust.
Improve constantly and forever the system of production
and service, to improve quality and productivity, and thus
1-14
constantly decrease costs.
Deming’s 14 Points
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Institute training on the job.
Institute leadership
Drive out fear, so that everyone may work effectively for the
company.
Break down barriers between departments.
Eliminate slogans, exhortations, and targets for the workforce
asking for zero defects and new levels of productivity
a) Eliminate work standards (quotas) on the factory floor.
Substitute leadership
b) Eliminate management by objective and by numbers.
Create pride in the job being done.
Institute a vigorous program of education and self-improvement.
Put everybody in the company to work to accomplish the
transformation.
1-15
From Out of the Crisis by W. Edwards Deming (1986)
The Quality Movement
• Joseph Juran (1904 - )
– Viewed quality as “fitness for use”
– Also invited to Japan to conduct seminars in the
1950s
– Message is that quality does not happen by
accident – it must be planned.
1-16
The Quality Movement
• Juran’s Quality Planning Road Map (Quality Trilogy)
– Quality Planning
1. Identify who are the customers.
2. Determine the needs of those customers.
3. Translate those needs into our language.
4. Develop a product that can respond to those needs.
5. Optimize the product features so as to meet our needs as
well as customer needs.
– Quality Improvement
6. Develop a process that is able to produce the product.
7. Optimize the process.
– Quality Control
8. Prove that the process can produce the product under
operating conditions.
9. Transfer the process to Operations.
1-17
The Quality Movement
• Kaoru Ishikawa (1915 - )
– Studied under Deming
– Believes quality is a continuous process that relies
on all levels of the organization
– Advocated the use of easy-to-use statistical tools
• Ishikawa, or Fishbone Diagram
• Pareto Diagram
• Flow Charts
1-18
Ishikawa, or Fishbone Diagram
1-19
Sample Fishbone or Ishikawa Diagram
1-20
Pareto Analysis
• Pareto analysis involves identifying the vital
few contributors that account for the most
quality problems in a system
• Also called the 80-20 rule, meaning that 80%
of problems are often due to 20% of the
causes
• Pareto diagrams are histograms that help
identify and prioritize problem areas
1-21
Pareto Chart
1-22
Flow Chart
for Project
Scope
Verification
1-23
The Quality Movement
• Philip Crosby (1926 – 2001)
– Advocated
• “Do it right the first time”
• “Zero defects”
• “Quality is free”
• “Non-conformance costs organizations money”
1-24
Quality Systems
• International Organization for Standardization
(ISO)
– Derived from Greek word “isos,” meaning equal
– Formed in 1947
– Today has over 130 members “to facilitate the
international coordination and unification of
industrial standards.”
– Standards make up the ISO 9000 (organizations)
and ISO 14000 (environmental) families
1-25
Quality Systems : ISO 9000
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Customer Focus
Leadership
Involvement of People
Process Approach
System Approach to Management
Continual Improvement
Factual Approach to Decision Making
Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships
1-26
Six Sigma Defined
• Six Sigma is “a comprehensive and flexible
system for achieving, sustaining and maximizing
business success. Six Sigma is uniquely driven
by close understanding of customer needs,
disciplined use of facts, data, and statistical
analysis, and diligent attention to managing,
improving, and reinventing business
processes.”*
*Pande, Peter S., Robert P. Neuman, and Roland R. Cavanagh, The
Six Sigma Way. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000, p. xi
1-27
Basic Information on Six Sigma
• The target for perfection is the achievement
of no more than 3.4 defects per million
opportunities
• The principles can apply to a wide variety of
processes
• Six Sigma projects normally follow a fivephase improvement process called DMAIC
1-28
Quality Systems: 6 Sigma
• Six Sigma framework (D-M-A-I-C cycle)
–
–
–
–
–
Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
1-29
DMAIC
• Define: Define the problem/opportunity, process, and
customer requirements
• Measure: Define measures, collect, compile, and
display data
• Analyze: Scrutinize process details to find
improvement opportunities
• Improve: Generate solutions and ideas for improving
the problem
• Control: Track and verify the stability of the
improvements and the predictability of the solution
1-30
Six Sigma and Statistics
• The term sigma means standard deviation
• Standard deviation measures how much
variation exists in a distribution of data
• Standard deviation is a key factor in
determining the acceptable number of
defective units found in a population
• Six Sigma projects strive for no more than 3.4
defects per million opportunities, yet this
number is confusing to many statisticians
1-31
Standard Deviation
• A small standard deviation means that data
cluster closely around the middle of a
distribution and there is little variability among
the data
• A normal distribution is a bell-shaped curve
that is symmetrical about the mean or
average value of a population
1-32
Normal Distribution and Standard
Deviation
1-33
Six Sigma and Defective Units
Specification Range
(in +/- Sigmas)
Percent of
Population
Defective Units
Per Billion
Within Range
1
68.27
317,300,000
2
95.45
45,400,000
3
99.73
2,700,000
4
99.9937
63,000
5
99.999943
57
6
99.9999998
2
1-34
Six Sigma Conversion Table
The Six Sigma convention for determining defects is based on the
above conversion table. It accounts for a 1.5 sigma shift to account
for time and measures defects per million opportunities, not defects
per unit.
1-35
Quality Systems :
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Software Engineering Institute (SEI) at CarnegieMellon University
• a set of recommended practices for a set of key
process areas specific to software development.
• guidance as to how an organization can best control
its processes for developing and maintaining
software.
• path for helping organizations evolve their current
software processes toward software engineering and
management excellence
1-36
Quality Systems:
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Immature Software Organization
– Reactive in nature - Managers continually “fight
fires”
– Schedules & budgets are usually exceeded
– Functionality & quality often compromised to meet
schedules
– Project success determined by who is or is not part
of the project team
– No basis for judging quality
– Never seems to be enough time to address problem
1-37
issues or improve the current processes
Quality Systems:
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Mature Software Organization
– Proactive and able to follow a set of
disciplined processes throughout the software
project.
– Software processes and the roles of
individuals are defined explicitly and
communicated throughout the organization.
– Software processes are consistent throughout
the organization and continually improved
based on experimentation or experiences.
1-38
Quality Systems:
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Mature Software Organization
– Quality of each software process is monitored
so that the products and processes are
predictable across different projects.
– Budgets and schedules are based on past
projects so they are more realistic and the
project goals and objectives are more likely to
be achieved.
1-39
Levels of Software Process Maturity
1-40
Quality Systems :
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Level 1: Initial - Characterized by an
immature software organization in which the
software process is ad hoc and often reactive
to crises. Does not have a stable environment
for software projects, and success of a project
rests largely with the people on the project
and not the processes that they follow.
1-41
Quality Systems:
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Level 2: Repeatable - Basic policies,
processes, and controls for managing a
software project are in place. Previous
project successes can be repeated by other
project teams on other projects.
• Level 3: Defined - Software engineering and
management processes are documented
and standardized throughout the
organization and become the organizations
standard process.
1-42
Quality Systems:
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
• Level 4: Managed - Quantitative metrics for
measuring and assessing productivity and
quality are established for both software
products and processes which are
characterized as being quantifiable and
predictable.
• Level 5: Optimizing- At the highest level of
software process maturity, the whole
organization is focused on continuous process
improvement.
1-43
Key Process
Areas
Optimizing
Process change management
Technology change management
Defect prevention
Managed
Software quality management
Quantitative process management
Defined
Peer reviews
Intergroup coordination
Software product engineering
Integrated software management
Training programme
Organization process definition
Organization process focus
Repeatable
Software configuration management
Software quality assurance
Software subcontract management
Software project tracking and oversight
Software project planning
Requirements management
Initial
1-44
The Cost of Quality
• The cost of quality is
– the cost of conformance or delivering products
that meet requirements and fitness for use
– the cost of nonconformance or taking
responsibility for failures or not meeting quality
expectations
1-45
Five Cost Categories Related to Quality
• Prevention cost: the cost of planning and executing a
project so it is error-free or within an acceptable error
range
• Appraisal cost: the cost of evaluating processes and
their outputs to ensure quality
• Internal failure cost: cost incurred to correct an
identified defect before the customer receives the
product
• External failure cost: cost that relates to all errors not
detected and corrected before delivery to the
customer
• Measurement and test equipment costs: capital cost
of equipment used to perform prevention and
appraisal activities
1-46
Organization Influences, Workplace
Factors, and Quality
• A study by DeMarco and Lister showed that
organizational issues had a much greater influence
on programmer productivity than the technical
environment or programming languages
• Programmer productivity varied by a factor of one to
ten across organizations, but only by 21% within the
same organization
• The study found no correlation between productivity
and programming language, years of experience, or
salary
• A dedicated workspace and a quiet work environment
were key factors to improving programmer
productivity
1-47
The IT Project Quality Plan
1-48
Quality Philosophies and Principles
•
•
•
•
•
Focus on customer satisfaction
Prevention not inspection
Improve the process to improve the product
Quality is everyone’s responsibility
Fact-based management
1-49
Quality Standards and Metrics
1-50
Process Metrics
Metric
Description
Defect Arrival Rate
The number of defects found over a specific period of
time.
Defects by Phase
The number of defects found during each phase of
the project.
Defect Backlog
The number of defects waiting to be fixed.
Fix Response Time
The average time it takes to fix a defect.
Defective Fixes
The number of fixes that created new defects.
1-51
Product Metrics
Metric
Description
Mean Time to Failure
Average or mean time elapsed until a product fails.
Defect Density
The number of defects per lines of code (LOC) or
function points.
Customer Found Defects
The number of defects found by the customer.
Customer Satisfaction
An index to measure customer satisfaction – e.g.,
scale from 1 (very unsatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied)
1-52
Project Metrics
Metric
Description
Scope Change Requests
The number of scope changes requested by the client or
sponsor.
Scope Change Approvals
The number of scope changes that were approved.
Overdue tasks
The number of tasks that were started but not finished by
the expected date or time.
Tasks that should have The number of task that should have started but have been
started
delayed.
Over budgeted tasks
The number of tasks (and dollar amount) of tasks that have
cost more to complete than expected
Earned Value
Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP)
Over allocated Resources
The number of resources assigned to more than one task.
Turnover
The number of project team members who quit or
terminated.
Training Hours
The number of training hours per project team member.
1-53
Verification and Validation
• Verification
– Focuses on process-related activities to ensure
that the products & deliverables meet specified
requirements before final testing
• Technical Reviews
– Walk throughs
• Business Reviews
• Management Reviews
– Are we building the product the right way?
1-54
Verification and Validation
• Validation
– Product-oriented activities that attempt to
determine if the system or project deliverables
meet the customer or client’s expectations
– Testing - Does the system function as intended
and have all the capabilities & features defined in
the project’s scope and requirements definition?
• Unit Testing
• Integration Testing
• Systems Testing
• Acceptance Testing
1-55
Change Control and Configuration
Management
• Change is inevitable throughout the project
life cycle
• At some point, changes must be managed
–
–
–
–
What changes were made?
Who made the changes?
When were the changes made?
Why were the changes made?
1-56
Change Control and Configuration
Management
• Component Identification
– Naming conventions
• Version Control
– Evolutionary changes
• Configuration Building
– Builds & Releases
• Change Control
– Proposed changes are evaluated, approved or
rejected, scheduled, and tracked
– Reporting & auditing
1-57
Monitor and Control
• Learn, Mature, and Improve
– Lessons learned
• Improvement
• Best Practices
1-58
Quality
Control
Tools
1-59