Definitions - Baltic University Programme

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Transcript Definitions - Baltic University Programme

Ecosystem Health & Sustainable
Agriculture Project
Definitions of Sustainability –
sustainable rural development
and sustainable agriculture
Christine Jakobsson & Ingrid Karlsson
Baltic University Programme, Uppsala University
Definition of the ecosystem approach
 Ecosystems consist of: flora, fauna (including man), other organisms, the
surrounding environment.
Are all a part of a food chain, with interconnections where the different
levels influence each other as the result of complex & dynamic
If a critical species decreases in number or disappears, these relationships
can break down. The ecosystem can then take on a completely different
state after the break down.
Sustainable management must be based on this perspective & consider the
impact of proposed measures in a holistic manner.
The ecosystem approach places more far-reaching demands on protection
Management: - more adaptive & instructive with clear links between
implemented measures, environmental monitoring & research;
based more on the obligations of the sectors & less on their rights.
The aim is to preserve the structure & function of ecosystems & hence
maintain their capacity to provide us with goods & services.
Sustainable development reconciles 2 objectives
 The Brundtland Commission (The World Commission on
Environment & Development -‘Our Common Future’ ) 1987
The goal of SD:
 “SD is development that meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”
 Integrated and holistic nature of SD: Poverty, health, economic growth and
equity is as important as a clean environment
 “development - progress - growth”
 “stability - security - environment”
 The World Conservation Strategy (IUCN- International Union for
the Conservation of Nature,1980) - 3 objectives for conservation:
 maintenance of essential ecological processes,
 preservation of genetic resources;
 sustainable development of species and ecosystems.
The evolution after WSSD (2002):
Sustainable Development as a pyramid
Scoullos 2005
To obtain Sustainable Development we need:
Social Cohesion
& Welfare
Education for Sustainable
Effective Institutions
(Good planning, etc)
Application of innovative
science & appropriate
In 2008, the worldwide population is projected to use
140% of the resources the earth can generate in a year
(source: Global footprint network,
The ecological footprint measures
how fast we consume resources
and generate waste
compared to how fast nature can
absorb our waste and generate
new resources
In defining development, the United
Nations Development Programme says that it has to
do with
“creating an environment in which
people can develop their full potential
and lead productive, creative lives in
accord with their needs and
Sustainability has (at least)three
1. Time: we should give future generations
equal possibilities to choose their
development and life quality
2. Space: we should distribute resources
to humans in all continents and regions
3. Other species: we should include
ourselves in Nature and adjust to the limits
of resources and ecosystems on earth
Sustainability can be approached
in many different ways
-A sustainable rural development must
take regional and local differences into
Future development is dependent on
the rural natural and human resources
Baltic 21 - Overall Goal for Sustainable Development
“The essential objective of Baltic Sea Region co-operation is the constant
improvement of the living and working conditions of their peoples within
the framework of sustainable development, sustainable management of
natural resources, and protection of the environment.” Sustainable
development includes three mutually interdependent dimensions economic, social and environmental.
This means for the region:
 A safe and healthy life for current and future generations.
 A co-operative and prosperous economy and a society for all.
 That local and regional co-operation is based on democracy, openness and
 That biological and ecosystem diversity and productivity are restored or
 That pollution to the atmosphere, land and water does not exceed the carrying
capacity of nature.
 That renewable resources are efficiently used and managed, within their
regeneration capacity.
 That materials flow of non-renewable resources are made efficient and cyclic, and
that renewable substitutes are created and promoted.
 That awareness of the elements and processes leading to sustainability is high
among different actors and levels of society.
The Baltic Sea Region recognises its interdependence with other parts of the world and
makes its contribution to the fulfilment of sustainable development goals at the
global and European level.
Goals for sustainable agriculture
Agriculture contributes significantly to the society of the future.
Sustainable agriculture is the production of high quality food and other
agricultural products / services in the long run with consideration taken
to economy and social structure, in such a way that the resource base of
non-renewable and renewable resources is maintained. Important subgoals are:
1. the farmers income should be sufficient to provide a fair standard of
living in the agricultural community
2. the farmers should practise production methods which do not
threaten human or animal health or degrade the environment including
biodiversity and at the same time minimise the environmental
responsibilities that future generations must assume
3. non-renewable resources have to gradually be replaced by renewable
resources and that recirculation of non-renewable resources is
4. sustainable agriculture will meet societies needs of food and
recreation and preserve the landscape, cultural values and the historical
heritage of rural areas and contribute to create stable well developed
and secure rural communities
5. the ethical aspects of agricultural production are secured
Baltic 21 - An Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region
The Baltic 21 Agriculture Sector priority actions:
 Education and training
Create demonstration watersheds with demonstration farms in a
network in the different countries (part of joint action 3)
Develop a ”Virtual Research Institute” for sustainable agriculture
based on the already existing NOVABOVA in the Baltic Sea
Elaborate and implement agro-environmental legislation and
Thank you for your
attention and interest!