Chapter Four: Political Ideologies

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Transcript Chapter Four: Political Ideologies

Political Ideologies
Concurrent Enrollment
American Government
Mr. Markle
Introduction
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Not only is politics about power and
influence, but politics is also about
ideas.
Political ideologies are concerned with:
– The proper function of government
– The issues of liberty and equality
– The distribution of goods and services
Mainstream Ideologies
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Mainstream ideologies include Liberalism and
Conservatism.
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These mainstream ideologies do not want to make
major changes in our political and social order.
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Accept capitalism
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Accept New Deal era reforms
Radical Ideologies
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Radical ideologies include Democratic
Socialism and Libertarianism.
– Democratic Socialists
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Do not accept the capitalist system
Big corporations have too much power
Economic decisions should be in the hands of the
government
Radical Ideologies
– Libertarianism
Economic system free of governmental
interference.
 Dismantle most welfare programs.
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They want major changes, peaceful
change
They enter candidates in elections but
rarely win.
Power and Promotion
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1. How much power should the government have
over the economy?
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Socialism- Active government control of the economy
Liberalism- Positive action in the economy
Conservatism- Positive action to support capitalism
Libertarianism- Almost no regulation of the economy
Power and Promotion
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2. What should the government promote?
– Socialism- Economic equality, community
– Liberalism- Economic Security, equal opportunity, social
liberty
– Conservatism- Ecnomic liberty, morality and social order
– Libertarianism- Total economic and social liberty
Liberalism
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Liberalism-begins with the assumption that individuals are
rational beings capable of overcoming obstacles to progress
without resorting to violence.
Ideas of John Locke. Locke believed in the natural goodness
of man.
Contract Theory- the state gains it legitimacy from the
consent of the governed and is formed to protect the rights of
life, liberty, and property. (limited government)
Classic Liberalism
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Government should play a minimal role in society.
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A government that governs least governs best.
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A strong government is dangerous to liberty.
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Government should step out of the way and allow economic
competition.
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Addressed the needs of the business class.
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Key Idea: Minimal government and property rights.
Populism and
Progressivism
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After the Civil War, liberal attitudes toward
government began to change.

Farmers suffered greatly after the Civil War.
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The target of liberals now became railroads
and banks, not the government.

Out of this turmoil evolved a new liberal
movement known as populism.
Populism
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The Populists formed their own
political party in the 1880's. They
called for:
– More democratization of government
through secret ballots
– Direct election of Senators
– Voter initiatives
– More governmental involvement in the
economy
Progressivism
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Progressivism was another movement that grew
during the late 1890's and early 1900's.
Progressives supported:
– Government programs to ease the problems of
industrialization.
– Worker's compensation
– Ban on child labor
– Regulation of corporations
– Minimum wage
– Public limits in private corporate power
Progressivism

Progressives achieved major successes during the
administrations of Theodore Roosevelt and
Woodrow Wilson.
– During Roosevelt's administration, Congress passed laws
that regulated railroads and food and drug industries.
– During Wilson's administration Congress passed laws
regulating the banking industry, restricting unfair
competition.

Populists and Progressives believed that
government could remedy the economic ills by
limiting the power and wealth of private
corporations and banks.
Contemporary Liberalism
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Government should be responsible for assisting individuals,
businesses, and communities in dealing with social and
economic problems.
Government should ensure the economic well being of a
nation and should provide basic material guarantees (food,
shelter, health care, and education) to every individual.
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Government should stay out of social issues.
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Tolerance for different lifestyles.
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Address the needs of unemployed, and farmers.
Contemporary Liberalism
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The positive state cushions the excessive
inequalities of power and wealth that arise in any
capitalist system.
President Johnson's Great Society:
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Rent supplements for the poor
Scholarships for college students
Aid to the arts and humanities
Higher pensions for government workers
Aid to children with disabilities
Food stamp program
Contemporary Liberalism
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Policy Stances
– Abortion: support
– Stem cell research: support
– Gun control: support
– Civil unions/same sex marrriage: support
Neoliberals
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In the past liberals focused on:
– Economic issues
– Government's obligation to assist the needy
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In recent decades liberals focused on:
– Social and foreign policy issues
– This angered those who identified with the
liberal movement
– Liberals became associated with negative
feelings
Neoliberalism
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To help bring the liberal movement back, neoliberalism was
introduced.
Neoliberalism-a form of liberalism that emphasizes the
promotion of wealth rather than it redistribution, and the
reform of military practices rather than reductions in military
spending.
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Neoliberals direct their attention not to expanding government
services, but to their effective delivery.
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Neoliberals also criticize the size and costs of the government
bureaucracy.

Fiscal responsibility
Who Are The Liberals?
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Usually they are found in the
Democratic party.
Constituencies include:
– Minorities
– Labor movement
– Feminists
– Poor
Conservatism
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Conservatism-holds that established customs, laws, and
traditions, should guide society.

Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France
– The experience of past generations was the most reliable guide
to good government
– Customs, traditions, and laws should not be discarded
– People were not equal in ability or talent
Early American
Conservatism
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Adams did not believe in the natural goodness of
man, Adams said laws were needed to promote
public virtue and to curb private greed.
Universal suffrage was a threat to the republic.
Men without property lacked the independence,
judgment, and virtue to be members of a free
republic.
Conservatism and the
Industrial Age
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As America industrialized after the Civil
War, conservatives embraced laissez
faire economics.
Laissez faire economics-French for
"leave things alone". Government
should not interfere in the economy.
Conservatism and the
Industrial Age
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If people worked hard they could become
successful.
The government should stand out of the
way.
Conservatism became the ideology of
America's business class.
Contemporary
Conservatism
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The Great Depression proved to be detrimental to
conservatism.
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The beginning of the New Deal and many welfare
state programs.
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Popular acceptance of these programs placed
conservatism on the defensive for many years.
Contemporary
Conservatism
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Conservatives have opposed most major
liberal reforms. Including Social Security in
1935, and Medicare in 1965.
Since the 1980's conservatives have focused
on:
– Reducing social spending
– Reshaping the tax code
– Rebuilding national defense
Contemporary
Conservatism
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Remains at it’s core a defense of economic
individualism against the growth of the welfare
state.
Welfare state programs only create a permanent
class of the poor who are dependent on the state
and have no incentives to enter the working world.
Contemporary
Conservatism
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Conservatives support constitutional amendments
restricting abortion and permitting prayer in public
schools.
Policy Stances
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Abortion: oppose
Stem cell research: oppose
Gun control: oppose
Civil unions/same sex marriage: oppose
Who are the
Conservatives?
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Usually they belong to the Republican
Party.
While Republican presidents after the
Great Depression identified with
moderate ideas, Ronald Reagan
openly embraced his conservatism.
Neoconservatism
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Neoconservatism- the idea that contemporary liberalism has
transformed the modest New Deal welfare state into an
intrusive paternalistic state.
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They feel liberals overestimated the ability of government to
solve social problems.
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They feel that liberals no longer speak for the average person.
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They stress policies such as lower taxes on large incomes.
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They stress less regulation of business to promote economic
growth.
Neoconservatism
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Neoconservatives think that liberals have promised too much
to too many groups.
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A government that promised too much cannot deliver and
becomes overloaded.
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However, neoconservatives do support a modest welfare
state.
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A properly constructed welfare state strengthens citizen's
loyalty to the capitalist system.
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Newt Gingrich (R-GA) and Jack Kemp developed an
"empowerment" agenda to assist the poor with and emphasis
on anti-bureaucratic, market oriented programs.
The New Right: Populist
Conservatism
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New Right- a movement led by Christian
evangelicals that supports reestablishment of
traditional moral values, the abolition of abortion
and pornography, and legalization of school prayer.
The New Right combined elements of traditional
conservatism and populism.
The New Right: Populist
Conservatism
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The New Right feels that permissive liberal values
are responsible for a broad range of social ills
including:
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High levels of premarital sex
Adultery
Abortion
Income tax cheating
Excessive personal debt
In the late 80's and early 90's the movement was
disheartened by sex scandals of Jimmy Swaggart
and Jim Baker.
Key Ideas-Liberalism
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Classic Liberalism
– Minimal government
– Protection of property rights
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Populism
– Democratization of government
– Economic reforms
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Progressivism
– Social Programs to cope with problems cause by
industrialization
– Public limits on private corporate power
Key Ideas- Liberalism
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Contemporary Liberalism
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Positive state
Faith in solving problems collectively through government
Provide to economic well being of the nation
Provide basic material needs to each individual
Tolerance of various lifestyles
Neoliberalism
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Creation, not redistribution of wealth
Free trade
Reform of entitlement programs
Strong but economical defense
Key Ideas-Conservatism
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Early American conservatism
– Sanctity of private property
– Distrust of unchecked popular rule
– Duty of government to promote healthy economic environment.
Industrial Age conservatism
– Laissez faire economics
– Individualism
– Social Darwinism
Contemporary conservatism
– Reduced spending on social programs
– Revamping tax policies
– Strong defense
– Duty of government to promote virtuous citizenry
Key Ideas-Conservatism
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Neoconservatism
– Skepticism of government's ability to
solve social and economic problems
– Acceptance of modest welfare state
– Creation, not redistribution of wealth
– Assertive foreign policy
Key Ideas-Challenges to
the Status Quo
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New Right
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Critical of big government, big corporations
Distrustful of national media
Social ills seen as a product of liberal policies
Return the nation to traditional cultural values
Libertarianism
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Minimal government
Protection of property rights and personal freedom
No governmental regulation of the economy
Non interventionist foreign policy
Drastic reduction in defense spending