Transcript Slide 1

Helicopter Safety for Field Operations
A different approach
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The History of Helicopters
The Turbomeca Arriel is a highly-successful series of French turboshaft engines that first ran in 1974. Weighing 109 kg (240 lb), the Arriel 1 has a power output of 520 kW (700 hp). As of 2007, nearly 7
Data from:2
Cutaway of a Turbomeca Arriel
National origin
First run
Major applications
Agusta A109
HH-65C Dolphin
Sikorsky S-76
Helicopter applications
Mount Everest
Physics of Flight with Anti Torque Tail
Physics of Flight without Tail Rotor
Air Methods Who we are:
Air Methods Who we are:
• Founded in 1980
 Roy Morgan
• First hospital program
 St. Mary’s, Grand Junction, Colorado.
• Financial
• Employees
 4,000+
 Headquarters - Englewood, Colorado.
Fortifying Our Market Presence
1997 - Mercy Air Service
2000 - ARCH
2002 - Rocky Mountain Holdings
2007 - CJ Systems
2009 – Omni Flight North Georgia and Atlanta
(Rescue Air 1, Life-Net, and Emory Flight)
• 2011 – Omni Flight Nation wide
• Began operations in June 1998 as Phoenix AirCare LLC
with one helicopter strategically located in Griffin.
• Have steadily progressed to locations in Griffin,
Gainesville, Newnan, Kennesaw, Conyers Jasper,
Augusta and Ft. Benning, Springfield and Vidalia.
• Backed by a strong commitment from the largest Aeromedical provider in the world, AirMethods Inc.
Air Methods who we are:
Only air medical service provider with a national
presence under two service delivery models
Offer all key core competencies in-house:
Aviation operations
Aviation completions
Aviation innovations
Billing and collections
Dispatch and communications
Field maintenance
Medical staffing and training
Hospital-Based Flight Programs
Community-Based Flight Programs
Combined Flight Services
HEMS First Mission, Trauma
The “Golden Hour”
concept provides that
patients seen by a trauma
surgeon in a trauma
center within that first
hour of injury have
higher survivability and a
better quality of life.
Where we transport patients to
• Certified Stroke Centers?
• Cardiac Centers?
• Interventional Cardiac Centers?
• Pediatric Specialty Centers
• Burn Centers?
Scene Call
EMS / Fire Determines
The Landing Zone
Medical Emergency
Adult and Pediatric
• Speed (“Time is human tissue”) Death
and disability can be avoided if the right
care can be provided quickly enough.
• Access Minimize the time out of
hospital, point to point capable, avoid
traffic delays.
• Higher level care The additional skills
and equipment of a tertiary hospital;
more advanced drugs, RN and
Paramedic critical care capabilities.
Crew Capabilities
• Maintain a critical care environment
throughout transport.
• Provide medications and equipment not
commonly carried on ground units.
 Vaso-active medications
 Analgesics
 Sedatives/Paralytics (RSI)
 Advanced Procedures and Equipment
Medical Equipment
Pulse Oximetry
Monitoring of two invasive lines
Arterial Lines
Cardiac Monitor/Defibrillator
LTV 1200 Transport Vent with adult /
pediatric capabilities
C Pap Bi Pap
IVAC Med-system III med pumps.
(six line capable)
R.S.I. & Surgical Airway capable.
PYNG and EZ I.O. device
Weather and Visibility
• At 1000 feet on a clear day you can see
approximately 200 square miles
Federal Aviation Regulations
• Part 91
• Part 135
• Class B Air Space
• Crew is not given patient type info prior
to go decision.
• P.I.C. and the crew will either accept or
decline the flight based on scene
location and weather on the initial call,
we would never want anyone to “push
the envelope” on weather knowing a
child is in need of our help.
• Once the flight is accepted then further
information follows, such as age,
weight or other variables of condition.
Activating The System
When requesting air transport the
following info should be given to the
Comm Center:
Name of calling party, agency,
and call back number.
Location of incident.
County, City, Street and
Cross-Street and GPS
coordinates as available. This
is not mandatory information
to start the process.
Multiple aircraft inbound to the
Ground contact and frequency
Patient information
Age (Adult or Pediatric)
Approximate weight
Flight Com and the 911 Center
• Same type system
• Specialized Team Approach
• Aviation Understanding (They are not
dispatchers……..only the Pilot In
Charge (P.I.C.) can “dispatch” a flight
F.A.A. Rules
• Com Specs handle the call and route to
the closest “station” as you would say
or Aircraft Base
Weather Restrictions
“Go Flight / Air Alert” based on
1. Weather minimums at our base
2. Weather minimums at your
3. Weather minimums at the
receiving hospital
4. Weather minimums between
each point
Call us ASAP so the pilot on
duty can assure that all
areas in the flight path are
safe to fly!
Commitment to Safety
 Investments in Safety Technologies
• Night Vision Goggles (NVG)
• Helicopter Terrain Avoidance
Systems (HTAWS)
• Garmin GPS
• XM Satellite Weather
• Satellite Tracking
• Reinvestment of revenues into
Our pilots average more
than 20 years of flying
All Pilots working on the
Air Methods Georgia
team have the following:
A minimum of 3000
helicopter flight hours.
Commercial instrument
A minimum of 500 hours
night flying.
1000 hours of turbine
Alert Status
Alert / Standby
Request awaiting confirmation Crew prepares
for potential flight
Air Stand By’s (Over 20 miles/10 minutes) or as
requested by calling agency
Adult, Pediatric
Male, Female
If known, current condition
Radio communication
Ground contact inbound
Flight Crew Radio Information
Landing Zone Information / Hazards
Pt. update – if possible
Any Other Pertinent Changes
Estimated Time En-route
Lift off time = 5 minutes day , and 7
minutes at night
Distance from Helicopter Location
to Incident Scene = X miles
X miles divided by 2 = Flight Time
in minutes
Lift time + Flight time = ETE
Ex. (24 miles) (24 / 2) + 7 = 19 min
Weather can affect Lift Off Times
GPS - Global Positioning System
Computer aided Flight Following systems
is revolutionary for Air Medical
organizations. Dispatch can maintain
contact with the flight crew at all times,
even on the ground. This reduces errors
inherent in voice-based radio
communications and enhances safety.
Type: AS 350 B2
Speed: 120+ Knots (140+
Cruise Distance: 300
Capability: One patient
Weight of patient
dependant to location
of LZ and fuel load.
• BK117
BK 117
• Cruise - 135 Knots
or 155 MPH
• Range 300 Miles
• Capable of 2
patients or 1 500
pound patient
When you consider using a helicopter, ask
• Do I have a good landing zone, a designated
landing zone coordinator and safety officer?
• Do you have adequate crowd control police or
• Do we have good communications with the
helicopter crew?
Helicopter Shopping
Why we do it and what is the cost
Marking the Landing Zone
• Good communications!
• Emergency lights are helpful (day and
• Strobes and/or dimmed headlights at
• Consider parking Emergency vehicle
under any nearby obstructions.
Choosing a Landing Zone (LZ)
Try to select an LZ that is adjacent to the scene to avoid the need for
ground transport that could prolong a patient’s pre-hospital time.
(However, when necessary, a remote LZ is 100% appropriate.)
Select a landing zone that will allow for an angled approach from at
least two directions. This approach and departure path should be
clear of towers, poles, wires, trees, signs, and other obstructions
Hazards in or near the LZ
Wires – Electrical horizontal
Wires – Guy wires vertical
Unlit Towers
Chemical Exposure
Crowd Control
Landing Zone
Select a LZ that is as level and firm as
Parking lots, roads, sport fields, and other
locations are most desirable, free of debris
The size of the landing zone during the day
must be at least 60’ square. The size of the
landing zone during the night should be
100’ X 100’.
Keep pedestrians and vehicles away from
the landing zone.
 The pilot has the final say on the
selection of the LZ. And the pilot may
LZ Minimums
Dark or decreasing light operations LZ
100 ft x 100 ft
Night Vision Preservation
• Night vision is affected by white light never point
lights at the aircraft.
• Studies show a 2-3 hour exposure during the
day can increase the initial phase of dark
adaptation by 10 minutes.
The Landing Zone Officer
Designate a landing officer ( Ground Contact ) to communicate with the
helicopter crew as soon as the helicopter makes initial contact.
Notify the emergency dispatch center of the frequency you intend to
communicate .
Provide the helicopter crew with a description of:
 The landing zone. Include the size of the landing zone, how it is marked, a
list of any nearby obstructions.
 Any other air traffic in the area.
 Patient report is actually a disruption to aircraft on approach.
Notify the helicopter crew when you have them in sight. (Arms straight up
overhead, with back to wind.) Immediately notify the crew if any last minute
hazards are detected or if an unsafe condition develops. (Crossed arms back
and forth overhead to alert an abort)
Please use plain language instead of “10 codes.” Affirmative or Negative is the
preferred response to a yes or no question.
Highway Landing Zones
When selecting the LZ on any Highway, select the site
that has the best approach and departure route.
Keep in mind Wires, Bridges, Adjacent Buildings etc.
With a divided highway, use best judgment when
deciding to designate LZ on same side vs. opposite
direction of travel lanes.
• Stopping “ALL” traffic may be the best option
when dealing with the distractions of a Air
Medical Helicopter landing on your accident
scene. “Rubber Neckers” may create a much
more hazardous situation than than what you are
already dealing with. (Avoiding Secondary
Land on the Road ?
Never assume…
Land in front of the truck…….
Which Truck?
AIR LIFE Helicopter this is Hwy 316 Command
Hwy 316 Command this is Air Life 6 – Go Ahead
AIR LIFE 6 – I have you in sight. Be on guard for News Helicopters
in the area. We’re at “your” 3:00, and would like you to land at the
North end Of the Accident scene, South of the RED Fire truck that is
blocking the Roadway.
Hwy 316 Command - I do have you in sight sir. I
understand The North end of the accident scene south
of the RED Fire Truck. We’ll Be on the ground in two
Be Ready for ….
AIR LIFE Helicopter this is Hwy 316 Command
Hwy 316 Command this is Air Life 6 – Go Ahead
AIR LIFE 6 – I have you in sight. We’re at “your” 3:00, and would like
you to land at the North end Of the Accident scene, South of the RED
Fire truck that is blocking the Roadway.
Hwy 316 Command - I do have you in sight sir. I see some high
tension electrical wires in my approach path. Please have Law
enforcement block the South Bound traffic, and secure a
Landing zone there. I’ll go around. Advise when the LZ is
Ground Personnel Safety
It gets dusty when a helicopter lands.
Communicating with the Aircraft
• When directing the
Helicopter to your
location use the clock
method based on the
• Never base the
clock designation
on your position
Safe Approach Areas
•Approach aircraft
when directed to do
so by the crew.
•Secure any loose
items such as hats,
stretchers and
•Enter and leave
rotor disk area as
group at crew
Overall Safety
If you have a helmet, secure the chin strap. No other hats should be worn, and
nothing loose on your body.
Cover up, head to toe. Wear full eye protection and gloves.
Do not approach the helicopter until asked to do so by a crewmember.
Always walk, never run, around a helicopter. If the landing zone is uneven,
never approach or depart from the uphill side. Always use the downhill side
where you are in the pilot's view.
Do not touch anything on the helicopter unless directed to do so by a crew
Remain clear of the tail rotor and main rotor at all times.
At night. Do not flash any bright lights at the aircraft.
 Headlights on low beam, away from the LZ.
Helicopter Loading
There is nothing more that can be said
about a Tail Rotor Strike other than it is a
bad thing. Against wires, it can bring the
aircraft down. But most of all…
Will it just leave a mark or will it kill
Helicopter Loading
• Only approach the
helicopter, from the STAY CLEAR
front, when asked to
do so by the pilot or
• Do not permit
anyone to approach
the aircraft while
rotors turn without
the flight crew. If
possible, designate
a person to “Guard
the tail rotor.”
Lift-Off and Departure
• The LZ coordinator ( Ground Contact ) will notify the pilot when the
landing zone is clear of all ground personnel.
• Again check for other air traffic in the area and notify the helicopter
the area is clear.
• Maintain all protective devices against flying debris.
• Notify your dispatch that the helicopter has lifted off and if possible
their destination.
• If at all possible, try to maintain a secure landing zone with all
personnel and emergency equipment for a couple of minutes after
the helicopter departs. If an in-flight emergency develops, this will
allow the pilot to return safely to a secure landing zone.
Lift- Off and Departure
Lift- Off and Departure
Fire Ground Operations
We are not here to write your
Departments Policy. We are here to
share what we have learned and
discovered, and discuss ways in which
we may improve what is accepted as
“Best Practice.”
#1 Rule
Do not allow your crew and equipment to
become a casualty.
#2 Rule
If we are not in it and it is on fire
protect property.
Fire Ground Operations
Fire Ground Operations
Fire Ground Operations
Air Methods Bases in Georgia
AirLife 1 Griffin
AirLife 2 Gainesville
AirLife 3 Jasper
AirLife 4 Newnan
AirLife 5 Kennesaw
AirLife 6 Conyers
LifeStar 1 Springfield
LifeStar 2 Vidalia
Business Managers for Georgia
Russell Wise
[email protected]
Jeff Wilson
[email protected]
Russell McDaniel
[email protected]
Chad Black
[email protected]
David Herrin
[email protected]om
is a promise
Air Methods & Air Life Georgia are obligated to provide your
patients and your public safety officers the safest scene and
the most experienced transport
environment available.
We are dedicated to that purpose!
CEU Numbers
GFSTC Approval # 1749-1007-01
EMS CEU# 10-2010-CE-011