幻灯片 1 - 中国—东盟环境保护合作中心

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Transcript 幻灯片 1 - 中国—东盟环境保护合作中心

Institute for Global Environment Strategies(IGES)
China-Japan Cooperative Project Office
Koyanagi Hideaki
Institute for Global Environmental
Strategies(IGES)
・An international research
institute found in 1998
initiated by Japanese
government
・Target to the sustainable development in
Asia-pacific area to some practical and
creative policy research
China-Japan Cooperative Project Office
(Beijing Office)
・Set up in 2006
・A bridge/platform to boost the environmental
cooperation between China and Japan
IGES was assigned to be the environmental
cooperation platform between China and Japan
in June, 2009
On June 14th,2009, IGES was assigned to be an important
bridge/platform of
environmental
cooperation between
China and Japan
according to the
Memorandum signed
between the two
environmental
ministers of both
countries.
1.Changes of air pollution in Japan
(before & now)
2.Policy progress of air pollution in
Japan
3.Future cooperation to improve air
pollution in Asia
Tokyo
Tokyo & Kawasaki
Kitakyushu
Kitakyushu →
←Tokyo
↓Yokkaichi
Tokyo &
Kawasaki →
 Frequent
litigations on health issues
caused by air pollution in industrial
cities like Yokkaichi, Yokkaichi and
Amagasaki;
 Japan
has been insisting
on dealing with air
pollution for the past
50 years to treat these;
Asthma patient
From: Yokkaichi
Air Pollutant Density Changes in Japan
Average annual density from General Environmental
Air Monitoring Bureau
(mg/m3)
0.12
(ppm)
0.07
SPM(mg/m3)
PM2.5((mg/m3)
0.1
0.06
NO2(ppm)
SPM
SO2(ppm)
0.05
SO2
0.08
0.04
0.06
NO2
0.03
0.04
0.02
PM 2 .5
0.02
0.01
2010
8
2008
2006
2004
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
1982
1980
1978
1976
1974
1972
1970
1968
0
1966
0
From Tokyo
99
98
97
95
96
94
93
91
92
90
89
87
88
86
85
83
84
82
81
79
80
78
77
76
74
75
73
72
70
71
69
68
66
67
65
64
62
63
61
60
25
SOx
20
1 .2
15
1 .0
0 .8
10
5
Dust Fall
0
[mg/100cm2/day] so
Ash fall
59
[t/km2/month]
SOx & Dust Falls 1 .8
1 .6
1 .4
0 .6
0 .4
0 .2
0 .0
[year]
Isozu
Annual changes of so2 density (average
annually)
business high
school of
Yokkaichi
南
0.090
0.080
三滨小学
0.070
北星高中
0.060
0.050
ppm
楠
0.040
0.030
target 0.017ppm
0.020
0.010
0.000
1966
1970
1974
1978
1982
1986
1990
Year
(出处 四日市市)
1994
1998
2002
2006
2010
SO2 density changes in Kawasaki
0.080
SO2 density (ppm)
0.060
0.040
0.020
SO2 density
0.000
Year
(From Kawasaki)
6
SO2 dimission from factories in Kawasaki
トン
Ton
50,000
45,879
40,000
30,000
20,000
年度
10,000
635
0
(From Kawasaki)
7
 Japan
was also a developing country 50
years ago;
 Economy
grew rapidly after Tokyo Olympic
1964;
 It
also repeated the old pattern to treat
after pollution;
 Legislation
by central government;
 1962, Smoke Control Law (acts to restrict
demission of smoke from burning coals);
※ only in assigned area
 1968, Act on Air Pollution Prevention and
Control;
※ unified demission restricts national
wide
 1974, total quantity control on SO;
 1973, standard for NOx demission;
 1981, total quantity control on NO in 3
areas including Tokyo;
1973 overall demission restricts on offgas
focused on 3 pollutants (CO, CH, NO);
 1978 Japanese “Muskie Act”;
※ the standard is 10 times more strict for
passenger vehicles
 1977 more restricts to NOx demission of big
vehicles like truck & bus;
 1992 Acts of NOx from Vehicles;
※ apply to more traffic areas like capital
 2001 Acts of NOx from Vehicles & PM;
※ PM appeared in the pollutant control
besides NOx from vehicles

 Boost
the firms on R&D of hybrid electric
vehicle (HEV);
 Mass production of HEV Prius by Toyota in
1997
From: Toyota HP
~1960s
Factor
ies
1970s
1980s
1990s
2000s~
Smoke Control
Law(1962)
Act on Air Pollution
Prevention and
Control(1968)
Coal dust
& SOx
Sox total hnnnn
Control (1974)
Nox demission
standard(1973)
Vehicl
es
NOx
Nox total
control(1981)
Three Pollutant
Control(1973)
Japanese “Muskie
Act”(1978)
Nox Control to trucks &
buses(1977~)
bmmb
NOx
From 西尾哲茂
2015/7/21
Nox Act to
vehicles(1992)
PM
Shift to NOx、PM
Acts(2001)
PM
17
Air Pollutant Density Changes in Tokyo
Average annual density from General Environmental
Air Monitoring Bureau
(mg/m3)
0.12
0.05
0.04
NO2
0.03
0.02
0.01
2010
18
2008
2006
2004
0
2002
2000
1998
1996
1994
1992
1990
1988
1986
1984
1982
1980
1978
1976
1974
1972
1970
1968
PM 2 .5
NOx & PM control of vehicles
PM control of vehicles
Nox of vehicles
Control to total NOx
1966
SO2(ppm)
“
Muskie Act
0
0.06
NO2(ppm)
Japanese
0.02
PM2.5((mg/m3)
SPM
Control to total SOx
0.04
SO2
SPM(mg/m3)
Nox restrict to
big vehicles
0.06
3
pollutant restricts Standard of NOx
0.08
0.07
Act on Air Pollution Prevention and Contro
0.1
(ppm)
From Tokyo
・Japan has all kinds of cooperation based on official development
assistance (ODA) to improve the environment in Asia besides China
・10% of total loan goes to air pollution solutions of about 3,40
billion Yen
Loan changes to China
2500
2000
1500
billion Yen
1000
500
0
80
83
86
89
92
95
98
1
4
7
 The
air pollution in mainland China from
this January brought Big Impact to Japanese
society;
 What
can we do to the air pollution in
China?
 Two
actions
(1)Cooperation based on economy and industries
in Japan with good energy saving technologies
(2)Workshops on air pollution prevention &
treatment between China & Japan
(1)Send experts and receive Chinese visitors with exchange
activities between the two countries.
(2)A overall chart to list the cooperation opportunities in
air pollution that includes hardware (knowledge, experience,
technologies) and software from Japan.
Beijing, April 18, 2013
Progress of Cooperative Solution to Environmental Pollution in
Asia
Background & Target
Summary & Mechanism
• Swelling energy consumption and environmental issues (1)Make use of current regional mechanisms (provide found
to UNEP and Clean Air Asia);
like air & water pollution associated with rapid
economic growth and urbanization, such as the PM2.5 in (2)Capacity building and systematic construction to boost
solutions in Asia including China;
China are tough problems for all Asian countries.
(3)Introduce demonstrations of synergetic effective
• The synergetic effect to improve environment and
technologies;
greenhouse gases could be effective.
• Focusing on bilateral offset credit mechanism (BOCM)
Estimated effect
with full use of current regional mechanisms and
 Capacity building and technologies in developing countries
working on capacity building & solutions by applying
in Asia;
Japanese experience and technologies strategically.
 Less pollutions, low carbon and improved air in Japan;
 Creat bilateral compensational credits;
Make use of current
regional mechanisms
【Support UNEP】
・Knowledge & experience to
decision makers;
・Network construction of
government & researchers
【Support CAA】
・Management evaluation of
different countries/cities;
・Boost cooperation among
Asian cities;
Capacity building and
systematic construction to
boost solutions in Asia
including China
Based on Japanese local
community and targets to
major Chinese cities, focus
on personnel and
organizational capacity
building in air pollution
and low carbonization
Systematic construction of
cooperation between local
community with firms
Introduce demonstrations
of synergetic effective
technologies
Set policies by negotiation between
governments to implement and manage
procession.
・Set strategies on synergetic
effective solutions;
・Guideline of demonstration projects
of synergetic effective technologies;
・Bilateral cooperation of
“International application of
Japanese model”
・Information publication of domestic
environmental industries
双边补偿信用的开展、亚洲的低碳化与减轻大气污染等
Conceive of the Ministry of the Environment
 Swelling energy consumption and environmental
issues like air & water pollution associated
with rapid economic growth and urbanization,
such as the PM2.5 in China are tough problems
for all Asian countries.
 Three elements for cooperation

(1)Make use of current regional mechanisms;
(2)Boost Capacity building and systematic construction
to boost solutions in Asia including China;
(3)Introduce demonstrations of synergetic effective
technologies;
(2)Boost Capacity building and systematic
construction to boost solutions in Asia
including China





Based on Japanese local community and targets to
major Chinese cities;
focus on personnel and organizational capacity
building and policy making in air pollution and low
carbonization;
Local government with rich experience like Tokyo,
Kawasaki, Kitakyushu and Yokkaichi will participate;
Chinese cities are welcome to participate;
Please contact us if you intend to!

Though Japan also repeated the old pattern to treat after
pollution, it is different with the Chinese model;

Japan had neither advanced experience in policies for
reference nor good technologies on desulfurization,
denitration and dust collection.

We tried to develop our technologies while treat in such
tough situations;

However that China now has better situation to introduce
policy experience and good technologies in energy saving
and environmental protection from developed countries;

Meanwhile, the economic growth in China promises enough
investment capability for “leap” solution;

We will also support with experience and technologies;

Let’s work together to treat the air pollution in China and
Asia!
Thank you!
Koyanagi Hideaki
[email protected]