HOME FURNISHING - Homesciencetges
HOME FURNISHING - Homesciencetges
Home furnishing help you to make your dream
house come true. Every person wants their house
to be a reflection of themselves, but don't know
how to go about making it real. We will help them
realize their dream of having a beautiful home.
What are Home Furnishing?
• Home furnishings refer to the different kinds
of linen, furniture, fittings, flooring and the
bundle of other accessories used for
decorating and beautifying our homes. It
includes a wide range of bedspreads,
furnishing fabrics, curtains, rugs, carpets,
placemats, cushion covers, table covers, bed
spreads, bath linen and much more.
Planning of Home Furnishing
• Creativity-ability to produce new ideas or
things using skill and imagination
• Art-Creating unique effect of charm in a house
by reflecting refined and cultured taste of the
• Good taste-Set up the home pleasant ,
agreeable, excelling , interesting , satisfying to
ones own needs
Objective of Home Furnishing
• Beauty: It is the art of adjusting the space and equipments
to suit the fundamental and cultural needs of the family
and create a pleasant atmosphere. An awareness of good
design and beauty is an integral part of the individual.
• Expressiveness: the quality which differentiates one home
from another. It reflects markedly the very personality of
• Functionalism: To provide comfort , service and pleasure
apart from furniture and furnishing.
• Furniture must be arranged that it meets the needs as
eating , sleeping , studying, relaxing of the family. No areas
should be uncomfortable or uninviting ,nor bits and pieces
lying around making movement difficult.
Four qualities of Expressiveness
• Formality: unbroken lines , large space and
symmetrical look .House front with two vertical halves
• Informality : Bright ,warm colors and simple
comfortable furniture .Houses express informality
through modest size , asymmetrical balance
• Naturalness : Use of native materials , native styles,
handwork showing natural irregularities in structure
and primitive colors
• Modernism : express the spirit of modern age. The
families who selected modern furnishing were
associated with youth ,carriage , logical and impersonal
• Defined as :“It is a creativity which can transform an
• Planning color schemes
• Overcome structural defects
• Judge quality and care of furniture
• Judge good styling , mix and match style harmoniously
• Helps to handle walls and drape windows
• Plan light for efficiency , beauty and aesthetic
• Express individual taste and preference within economic
Elements and Principles of Design and
=(To Attain) Beauty + Expressiveness +Functionalism
Selection of Fabrics
Form and Fibre.
Fibre Characteristics: Text Book
• Durable and permanent press: little or no ironing , wrinkle free, holds oil
stains unless specially treated.
• Soil release: Fabric is more easily wetted to facilitate detergent action while
washing. Does not prevent stain.
• Water Repellent: Fabric repels water and water based stains.
• Soil and stain repellent: repels water and oil based stain
• Crease wrinkle resistant: Wrinkles less than normal – cotton, linen, rayon
• Shrinkage control: Fabric shrinkage limited to 1 % ,2% . Does nor guarantee
• Flame retardant: ignited fabric will self extinguish when source of flame is
• Fabric grades: Ranges from A on the less expensive end, to F on the pricy
side. Grade vary from one manufacturer to another. Depends on fibre , weave,
construction and performance characteristics.
• Grade should not be an indication of quality and durability.
Gives expensive look
Quality depends on:
How it is made ?
Quality of fibre used.
Density of pile
Types of Carpets
Woven carpets: Best quality – weaving
method. Piles and woven are woven together.
Backing is of jute and polypropylene yarn and pile
of wool, rayon, nylon.
Tufted carpets : The tufts are needled into
polypropylene sheet. The tufts are locked in to
place with latex – foam or jute . If foam is used
underlying is not used . Available in plain and
Bonded carpets: neither woven nor tufted. Material
is glued /heat fused. Made from hand made
fibres – flat, corded or velvet pile in appearance.
Factors to be considered while selecting a carpet:
• Selecting the right carpet for the right area is very important.
• You need to check out the quality of the carpet.
• Budget is also an important issue. So, you should do proper
research on the carpets and compare the prices.
• Maintenance factor should also be considered while selecting a
carpet. A beautiful and stylish carpet can really add some
elegance to your house thereby increasing its aesthetic value.
• You can give a fresh look to the décor of your house by placing
an attractive carpet.
• The color of the carpet is a crucial issue. You need to select it
wisely. It should match well with the color coding of the interior.
• Carpet comes in different colors, designs, patterns, shapes and
sizes. You need to choose the one that is compatible with the
décor of your house.
Materials of Carpets
• Wool: has excellent durability, can be dyed easily and is
• Nylon: Nylon is the most common material, printed
easily and has excellent wear characteristics. Nylon
tends to stain easily because it possesses dye sites on
• Polyster: good physical properties and is inherently
stain-resistant because it is hydrophobic
• Polyproplene: is used to produce carpet yarns because
it is inexpensive. Locked into place with latex then
foam and jute sheet. Called Tufted Carpets
• Acrylic:Acrylic is fairly difficult to dye but is colourfast,
washable and has the feel and appearance of wool
making it an ideal rug fabric.
Care of Carpets
• Carpets should be daily cleaned using vacuum
cleaners. Brooms should be used as well to get
rid of hair (esp. pet hair, if you have cats or any
other pets at home).
• Wash your carpets once annually or bi-annually
at laundry facilities. You may choose to call a
specialized company to get an indoor cleaning
for your carpet.
• If the carpet gets stained with juice or any
other similar substance, it should be washed
immediately, with no delay, as such stains are
harder to remove if left unwashed.
• Small carpets must be placed at the entrance of
the house as this helps keeping dust away.
Carpet - Terms
• Rug- A single piece of floor covering made
with a pattern or a border with fringe.
• Area rug- Smaller rug used to emphasize an
• Scatter rug- Very small rug used to
complement room .
• Wall to wall carpet- difficult to clean as it is
difficult to shift, traffic lanes appear.
• Upholstery fabric might seem pretty obvious
such as selecting a color, the single biggest factor in
• Choose a fabric based on who will be using your sofa. If
your pets will also be sharing your sofa with you,
consider a microfiber fabric or leather as they can
withstand heavy use.
• Consider fabric durability if your sofa will be placed in a
high-traffic area of the home.
• Woven patterns hold up longer than printed ones, as
do higher thread counts. Should be rust proof.
Choice of fabric
Principles of design
Personal and family use
Comfortable- stain proof
Wear and tear
• Select the picture in proportion to size of wall ,large
picture for large wall and small picture for small walls
• Leave sufficient empty space around the picture
• Hang all pictures with the bottom edge in one line.
Irregular hung picture looks unattractive
• Pictures to be often placed over a sofa,table or fire
• Smaller pictures can be grouped together for greater
• Hung pictures in pleasing proportion to furnishings and
walls –create sense of balance and unity in interiors
• Arranging flowers gives you a chance to participate in an art
activity, to express yourself creatively, and to make your
home or room more livable and attractive.
• Flowers are not expensive and are very refreshing
,colourful and provide a lot of variety.
• Choose flowers whose color does not clash with colors of
walls, curtains ,sofa
• Select the flower vase of appropriate size. Small vase for
large flowers and tall vase for small flowers
• Place the arrangements where it can be easily seen and
• Keep the size of the arrangement according to the place it
is meant for.
Styles in Flower Arrangement
• Modern style: Highly individualistic
composition. No fixed rules and employs
unorthodox materials for making flower
• Greater freedom in personal expression is
• Aim is to achieve strong, uncluttered effect
with natural plant form,relying on contrasting
textures and shapes for greater impact.
Styles of Flower Arrangements
• Traditional : Full symmetrical groupings of
mixed flowers displayed in a highly decorated
ornamental vase-colourful ,expensive .
Large blooms and deep hues are placed in the
centre ,pale colors are used as outline
• Round or oval arrangements depending upon
setting and plant materials
• Oriental style-China , Japan , Egypt has
been practiced with great skill for many years.
• They are more aesthetic groups of plant
• Symbolic presentations of an ideal harmony
which exists between earthly and eternal life.
• Triangle arrangement
• IKEBANA -The Japanese Art
• Used as constant decorations in Japanese
• An indispensable part of life.
• Guest are welcomed and bought to sit and
admire the beauty of flowers for a
moment or two silence.
Principles of Flower Arrangements
• Line: Circular, triangle or rectangle.
• Form: Sphere, cone and cube-depends on the
plant material and container.
• Texture: Surface of the plant material. Rose is
velvety and zinnias is rough. There must be unity
mong plant material, container and background
• Color: One dominant color is necessary for
emphasis unity. Analogous colour scheme is the
best type. Complementary color scheme looks
best in large rooms or dim lights
• Rhythm: Either slanting or upright or blossoms may
form C or U curves. Curved stems ,leaves ,flower
stalk, weeds and grasses can form rhythm.
• Proportion: Plant material should be one and half
times as the cylinderical container. Horizontal
arrangements look good in shallow containers.
• Balance: Symmetrical or asymmetrical.
• Emphasis: Flower to be placed in the centre of the
plant material and close to the neck of the container.
• Unity and harmony: Between the container and
contents are must for effective flower arrangements .
Roses look good in glass container.
Curtains and Draperies
Curtains and draperies are chameleons. They work hard at
blocking light and sound, heat and cold. They're also
extraordinarily decorative and add enormous personality to
Drapes are pleated and are more formal.
Curtains are informal and it can be easily made.
Both can make the window more appealing with extended
flows of fabric.
Curtains and Draperies
• It changes the apparent size , shape and character
of a room or the architectural awkwardness
• Small rooms look larger if curtains and draperies
blend with and extend the length of walls
• Low rooms look higher if draperies go from ceiling
• Drapes and curtains control privacy ,light , heat
Functions of Curtains and Draperies
Help in maintaining privacy
Control heat and light inside the room
Absorbs and smoothen noise
Add beauty to the room
Help modify shape and size of the room
Curtains hide architectural faults of the room
Brings coziness to the room
• They are light weight, lined fabric that filters and diffuses
• They are used alone or under drapery ,close to the window.
• Draw curtains: Transparent and opaque –mounted on
• Drapes: loosely hung fabrics. They are heavy ,opaque that
can be drawn or stand idly at the sides of windows.
• Glass curtains : Thin transparent fabrics which hang next to
• Cornice: Rigid horizontal bands of several inches wide
placed on window top to conceal curtain tops and rods
from which they are hung
Cornices, Valance , Ropes and Cords
• Cornices: Horizontal bands several inches wide
placed at the window top to hide curtain tops
• Valance: Gathered or pleated or piece of
straight fabric stiffened with buckram .Used to
hide from view an ugly top part of windows.
• Ropes and Cords or Beads- Used where
curtains and draperies are not used .Hung
closely very near to one another as a
• Material used for curtains should be strong ,
durable and flexible
• Denim is strong and durable while gingham is
• Satin hangs in soft folds and dressy when
woven of smooth silk
• Dark colored curtains stand out against light
Factors that affect selection of fabric
Texture color and pattern of the fabric
Laundry qualities of fabric
Durability of the fabric
Ability to retain the shape on constant
hanging after dry cleaning
• Resistance to insect attack
Fabrics available in market
• Found with glass curtains , large doorways as a
separating part of a room.
• They are heavier and do not necessarily pull
across the opening they cover .
• They are loosely hung.
• Used for decoration purpose
Selection of Curtains and Draperies
• Small rooms look large if curtains and draperies blend
• Rooms of low ceiling give an appearance of height if
diagonal lines are used on curtains
• Plain curtains should be used in rooms that have more
patterns in them.eg many pictures and pattern in
• Plain curtains can be used with plain walls so as to give
a sense of continuity and spaciousness
• When choosing curtains with patterns ,size of room
,general color of the furnishing should be kept in mind.
If there are too many windows ,pattern of curtains
should be less striking .
Home Furnishing: Planning and Objectives
Elements and Principles of Design and Art
Colour and scheme
Curtains and Draperies
• Lighting Measurement Terminology
• Wattage: The amount of electricity consumed
by a light source
Lumens: The amount of light that a light
Efficacy: Lumens per watt
Footcandles: The amount of light reaching a