Formaldehyde Training

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Transcript Formaldehyde Training

Formaldehyde Training
 N. C. State University
 Environmental Health & Safety Center
Review of OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Potential Health Effects
Exposure Control Methods
Signs and Symptoms of Exposure
Hygiene Protection
Emergencies and Spill Procedures
Medical Surveillance
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Applies to all occupational exposures to
formaldehyde (i.e.. Formaldehyde gas, its
solutions and materials that release
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Requires initial monitoring for employees
who may be exposed at or above the action
Monitoring whenever sign and symptoms
of exposure reported
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Periodic monitoring
In laboratories, all experiments involving
formaldehyde need to be carried out in a certified
chemical hood
Initial training:
Recommended for all employees who may come to contact
with formaldehyde in their work environment
Required for anatomy, pathology, & histology
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Annual refresher training:
For anatomy, pathology and histology labs
Any lab with airborne formaldehyde
concentrations at or above 0.1 ppm
Refresher training whenever a new/modified
process is introduced in work area
Site specific training by PI/supervisor
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
All laboratories using formaldehyde
require a written safety plan
Safety plan shall explain methods of safe
handling formaldehyde in all process
NCSU written formaldehyde program may
be used as a support document for
formaldehyde use
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs)
TWA - Time Weighted Average:
0.75 ppm as an 8-hour TWA
STEL - Short Term Exposure Limit
2.0 ppm for any 15 minute period during the work
Action Level
0.5 ppm as an 8-hour TWA
OSHA Formaldehyde Standard
Regulated Areas -
Shall be established where airborne formaldehyde
concentrations exceed either TWA or STEL
Danger signs shall be posted at entrances
Access shall be limited to authorized persons
Potential Health Effects
Inhalation: Repeated or chronic exposuremay cause headaches, rhinitis, nausea,
drowsiness, respiratory impairment, kidney injury
and pulmonary sensitization and tissue damage
May cause neuropsychological effects including
sleep disorders, irritability, altered sense of
balance, memory deficits, loss of concentration,
and mood alterations
Potential Health Effects
Inhalation: Carcinogenic Effects
Long-term exposure to formaldehyde is reported
to be associated with an increased risk of cancer of
the nose and accessory sinuses and
nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cancer in
Potential Health Effects
Skin Contact
Acute Exposure: vapors or solutions may cause
smarting, white discoloration, roughness, hardness,
anesthesia, and first degree burns. In previously
exposed individuals subsequent exposures may result in
a sensitization dermatitis characterized by the sudden
eruption of blisters on the eyelids, face, neck and arms.
Potential Health Effects
Skin Contact
Chronic Exposure: Prolonged or repeated
exposures may cause second degree burns,
numbness and itching rash, fingernail damage,
hardening or tanning of the skin and sensitization.
The dermatitis may be either a sudden blistering
reaction or may be delayed several years with
eruptions starting on the digital areas, wrists and
other body parts.
Potential Health Effects
Eye Contact
Acute Exposure: Airborne concentrations from
0.05 to 3.0 ppm may cause irritation with redness,
itching, pain, blurred vision, and mild tearing.
Concentrations from 4 to 20 ppm may cause
profuse tearing and damage to the eye. Aqueous
solutions effects range from reversible, minor
injury and discomfort to severe, permanent corneal
damage and loss of sight.
Potential Health Effects
Eye Contact
Chronic Exposure:
Effects depend on the concentration and
duration of exposure
Effects are different based on the individual’s
Signs and Symptoms of
Watery eyes
Burning sensations in eyes, nose and throat
Skin rashes
 Coughing
Chest tightness
Allergic reactions
Exposure Control Methods
Engineering Controls
Reduces or eliminates hazard at the source
Preferred method of hazard control
• Using formaldehyde preservative substitute whenever possible
• Using formaldehyde only in chemical laboratory hoods
Exposure Control Methods
Administrative Controls (Work Practices)
Control between the worker and the source of hazard:
• Keep solution containers of formaldehyde closed when not in use
• Reduce exposure time
Exposure Control Methods
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Specialized clothing or equipment worn to protect
from hazard
Provides limited protection
Requires proper use and maintenance
The last choice for exposure control
Exposure Control Methods
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Eye protection :
Indirect-vent goggles
face shield worn with goggles for severe exposure
Exposure Control Methods
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Gloves : choose gloves and sleeves with proper
permeation and degradation ratings, materials such as
nitrile or neoprene are recommended
Gloves have limited protection and shall be changed as
soon as they become contaminated
Exposure Control Methods
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Respiratory protection
Used at exposures above PEL or STEL
Used only when other control methods are not feasible/effective
Used in emergencies
Voluntary use (employee’s concern)
– Air purifying respirators with chemical cartridge
– Air supplied respirators
• Any respirator selection/use requires EH&S approval
Exposure Control Methods
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Apparel: Aprons and sleeves may be worn over lab coats,
neoprene and nitrile materials offer excellent resistance to
formaldehyde and a wide variety of other chemicals
For more information on personal protective equipment
contact EHSC at 513-1282
Hygiene Protection
Emergency Showers
will be located in areas where employee’s skin
may be splashed with solutions containing 1% or
greater formaldehyde
Emergency showers require annual inspection and
Hygiene Protection
Emergency Eyewashes
Shall be located in areas where employee’s eyes
may be splashed with solutions containing 0.1% or
greater formaldehyde
Emergency eyewash shall be able to deliver at
least 1.5 liters of water per minute (0.4 gpm) for
15 minutes
Eyewash stations need weekly test
and annual inspection
Emergencies and Spill
Exposure Incidents
Inhalation: leave the area and seek immediate
medical attention, report to supervisor
Skin/eye exposure: rinse the effected area/eyes
using the emergency eyewash/safety showers for
at least 15-minute and seek immediate medical
attention (report to supervisor)
Emergencies and Spill
While protecting yourself, try to help by
removing the victim to a safe area
Report the incident to the campus police (911)
Stay with victim until help arrives
Emergencies and Spill
Large Spills
Leave the area, close the door, call campus police at 911
and inform your supervisor
Report the location and volume of the spill
Small Spills
Need to be cleaned by trained people
Use appropriate types of PPE
Seal and contain cleaning debris as hazardous waste
Medical Surveillance
Institute medical surveillance program for all
employees exposed to formaldehyde
concentrations at or exceeding the Action
Level or exceeding the STEL
Employees who develop signs and symptoms
of overexposure
Employees exposed to formaldehyde in
Medical Surveillance
Program includes:
Medical Disease Questionnaires
Performed by or under supervision of a
licensed physician
Medical Examinations
No cost to employee
Kept for duration of employment and 30 years
Archived at the Student Health Services
Monitoring and exposure assessment data:
Kept for 30 years
Archived at EH&S
Material Safety Data Sheet
A unique document for a specific
chemical, explaining information such as
hazards, exposure limits, spill control, and
protective equipment in different sections
Must be readily available wherever
chemical is being used
Manufacturer's responsibility to develop
and provide MSDS
Additional Resources
OSHA Formaldehyde Program (29 CFR
OSHA Occupational Exposure to Hazardous
Chemicals in Laboratories (29CFR 1910.1450)
NCSU on-line formaldehyde program
NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards
National Cancer Institute
For More Information
For Additional Information, Assistance, or
Questions in Working Safely with
Formaldehyde Contact the Industrial Hygiene
Section at 919-513-1282
Take the Quiz
In order to complete Formaldehyde
training you must complete a short quiz