• Element-any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances – Ex: hydrogen and oxygen (periodic table) • Atom- smallest unit of an element • Compound- two or more elements chemically combined – Ex: Water H 2 O
• Molecule- smallest unit of most compounds • Organic compound- a compound that contains carbon – The most important groups of organic compounds found in living things are proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids.
• Inorganic compound- a compound that does not contain carbon – Ex: water or table salt
• Proteins-large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur – Foods high in protein: meat, eggs, fish, nuts and beans • Amino acids- small molecules that make up protein molecules – 20 common amino acids – Combine to form thousands of proteins
• Enzymes- type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing – Ex: enzymes in saliva speed up digestion of food • Carbohydrates- energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Ex: sugars and starches • Lipids- fats, oils and waxes- energy-rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
• Nucleic acid- very large organic molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus – Contain the instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life – Two kinds of nucleic acid • DNA • RNA
• DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid- genetic material that carries info about an organism that is passed from parent to offspring • RNA- Ribonucleic acid- plays an important role in production of proteins
• Selectively permeable some substances can pass through it while others cannot • Substances that can move into and out of a cell do so by one of three methods: – Diffusion – Osmosis – Active transport Picture of semipermeable membrane where red is blood, blue is the dialysing fluid, and yellow is the membrane.
• Process by which molecules tend to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration – This is the main method by which small molecules move into and out of a cell
• The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane – Water molecules move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
If the concentration of solute (salt) is equal on both sides, the water will move back in forth but it won't have any result on the overall amount of water on either side.
" means the same The word "
" means less, in this case there are less solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, since salt sucks, water will move into the cell.
The cell will gain water and grow larger. In plant cells, the central vacuoles will fill and the plant becomes stiff and rigid, the cell wall keeps the plant from bursting In animal cells, the cell may be in danger of bursting, organelles called
will pump water out of the cell to prevent this. The word "
" means more, in this case there are more solute (salt) molecules outside the cell, which causes the water to be sucked in that direction.
In plant cells, the central vacuole loses water and the cells shrink, causing wilting.
In animal cells, the cells also shrink.
• Movement of materials through a cell using energy • Passive Transport- movement of materials through a cell with out using energy
• Transport proteins they “pick up” molecules outside the cell and carry them in • Transport by engulfing- first the cell membrane surrounds a particle, then it pinches off and forms a vacuole within the cell