Chapter 18

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Transcript Chapter 18

Life at the Turn of the Twentieth Century
I. The Expansion of
Education

A. A democracy functions best when its citizens can
read and write
B. Most children received a basic education (only 2%
finished high school)
C. Farmers children only attended from Nov. to April
D. Many child labor laws were passed around 1900
E. The Americanization of
immigrants


 Public schools played a vital role in assimilating
immigrants
 Many immigrants moved here for the opportunity of a
free education
 Learning to read and write in English prepared
immigrants for American citizenship
II. Expansion of higher
education

 College enrollment doubled between 1890 and 1910
 Opportunity for higher ed. set the U.S. apart from other
countries
 Philanthropists made education a possibility for many
III. Discrimination in
education

A. Immigrants, the poor, and minorities were less likely
to receive an education
B. Separate women’s universities were established try
to segregate
C. African Americans were not allowed to attend most
universities
 A few did allow them: Oberlin, Bates, Bowdoin
 Several African American universities were established
to provide for them: Wilberforce, Howard, Atlanta, etc.
 Number of African Americans receiving a degree was
very small
IV. Booker T. Washington
and W.E.B. Du Bois

A. Booker T. Washington thought African
Americans should focus on alleviating their
economic situation before worrying about their
political situation (focus on education).

1. Stressed
vocational
education and
job training
2. “as much
dignity in
tilling a field as
in writing a
poem”
B. W.E.B. Du Bois was the first African
American to earn a PhD from Harvard

1. Fought for
economic,
political, and
social equality
2. Founded the
Niagara
Movement
3. Helped form
the NAACP
Part Two: The Jim Crow
era

A. Voting
restrictions
1. Poll tax
2. Literacy
tests
3. Grandfath
er clauses
Segregation
 Segregation

 Separation of people by race
 de facto segregation –
caused by tradition
(common thing, but not by
law)
 Jim Crow laws (de jure – by
law) – laws meant to
segregate races and take
away rights from African
Americans
C. Plessy vs. Ferguson

The Civil Rights cases
overturned the Civil Rights
Act (1883)
African American Homer
Plessy sued for the right to
sit wherever he wanted on
the train
The courts ruled that
facilities and services needed
to be separate-but-equal
Jim Crow laws did not
violate the 14th Amendment
D. Violence against African Americans
1. Blacks were
forced to follow
strict etiquette
codes
2. Breeches in these
etiquette codes
resulted in
violence
3. From 1882 to 1892
over 1,200 blacks
were lynched
4. Ida B. Wells led
an anti-lynching
campaign

E. The Great Migration
1. Blacks moved
north to escape
violence and legal
segregation;
escape poverty
and look for jobs
2. Discovered de
facto segregation
3. Race riots
erupted in many
cities due to the
white fear of job
competition

VI. Resisting
Discrimination

A. Many African American leaders rose to fight
discrimination
I.
II.
Booker T Washington
WEB DuBois
B. Organized the NAACP
1. Abolish segregation and
discrimination
2. Oppose racism
3. Gain civil rights for African Americans
4/16

I. Review yesterday’s material
II. Notes – Progressive Movement
III. Labor Unions & Strikes – Graphic Organizers
SWBAT Identify the significance of three different
strikes/riots, as well as the purpose of labor unions.
I. Reforms needed to clean
up problems created by
industrialization
A. Progressives

sought reform in
four main areas
1. Social
2. Moral
3. Economic
4. Political
1.
B. Four common goals of
Progressives
Gov. should
be
accountable to
its citizens
2. Gov. should
curb the power
of wealthy
interests
3. Gov. should
expand to
improve the
lives of its
citizens
4. Gov. should
become
efficient and
less corrupt

C. Muckrakers
1. Journalists
who pointed
out the evils
of society
2. Upton
Sinclair, The
Jungle

II. Progressive reforms in
factories

A. Poor working conditions
needed to be reformed
1. Dangerous working conditions
2. Long hours, low wages, no job security, no benefits
3. Discrimination against women
4. Child labor
B. Successful reforms
1. Organization
s created to
regulate
factory
working
conditions
2. Standardizin
g an 8 hour
work day
3. Passing of
child labor
laws

C. Progressive impacts on labor
unions (strengthened)

1. Knights of Labor
2. American
Federation of
Labor (Samuel
Gompers)
3. American
Railway Union
(Eugene V.
Debs)
4. Industrial
Ladies’ Garment
Workers Unions
D. Major strikes

1. Haymarke
t Square
2. Homestea
d Strike
3. Pullman
Strike
III. Progressive
accomplishments in
A. Local governments
government

B. State governments
1. Referendums and initiatives
2. Recalls In elections
C. In elections
1. Primary Elections
2. Direct election of U.S. Senators (17th Amendment)
3. Approval of the secret ballot system
IV. Progressive federal
reforms

A. Theodore Roosevelt’s “Square Deal”
B. Anti-trust laws
1. Sherman Anti-Trust Act banned any business that
restricted trade
2. Clayton Anti-Trust Act expands the Sherman Act
3. Outlaws price-fixing
4. TR broke up holding companies that had monopolies
Industry & Progressive
Test Review

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
The Transcontinental Railroad
Encourage westward settlement
Grown and Expand
Jobs available
Cheap, run down apartment buildings
Unsanitary
Eastern & Southern Europe; Asia
Variety of cultures in America working together
9-16

9. Steel making process
10. Carnegie-Steel; Morgan – Banking; Vanderbilt –Railroads;
Rockefeller – Oil
11. Whitney-Cotton Gin; Edison – Light Bulb; Ford – Assembly Line
(in making automobile); Wright Brothers – airplane
12. Government does not interfere with businesses
13. Assembly Line process of manufacturing
14. Journalists who exposed bad conditions of society
15. Progressive Movement
16. Safer work place conditions; better hours; better pay (make life
better for citizens)
17-25

17. Vote on bill to become a law
18. Directly by people
19. Public officials
20. Primary Election
21. Lewis Hine
22. Sam Gompers
23. Attain voting rights for women (19th amendment)
24. Square Deal
25. land/job opportunities
26-34.

26. Land/job opportunities
27. 5th & 14th
28. Separate but Equal is legal
29. Booker T – Vocational education; WEB DuBois – demand
political, economic, social equality
30. DuBois
31. Washington
32. Faced greater discrimination thru Jim Crow
33. Laws that forced segregation
34. Ida B. Wells