Transcript Document

 Second
 Minute
= 60 seconds
 Hour
= 60 minutes
 Day
= 24 Hour
 Year
= 365 Days
 Decade
= 10 Years
 Century
= 100 Years
 Millennium
= 1000 Years
10 millimeters (mm)
= 1 centimeter (cm)
10 centimeters
= 1 decimeter (dm) =
100 millimeters
10 decimeters
= 1 meter (m) = 1000
10 meters
= 1 dekameter (dam)
10 dekameters
= 1 hectometer (hm) =
100 meters
10 hectometers
= 1 kilometer (km) =
1000 meters
Units of Measurement
and Time
Units of Measurement and Time Handout (15pts)
 Roman Numerals come from the Ancient
Roman Numerals
Roman number system.
These are the first 10 Roman Numerals
6. VI
7. VII
9. IX
10. X
 Higher Number Roman
L = 50
C = 100
D = 500
M = 1,000
What is this number?
 XIV = ???
 Write the Roman
Roman Numeral Practice
Numeral for the following
 XXX = ???
 MCI = ???
 MMM= ???
 XM= ???
 If you have a X with an I
in front of it, it is 9. Why?
 What about IV?
 One of the main places
you will encounter Roman
Numerals will be on
Roman Numerals on a Clock
Ice Age
Bartholomeu Dias
Vasco da Gama
Christopher Columbus
Juan Ponce de Leon
Ferdinand Magellan
Front of Paper
Unit I Vocabulary (26pts)
If you copy the
definitions directly
from the text book, you
will only receive 50%
of the points. Use your
own words to define.
Vocabulary Poster = 10pts
Back of Paper
Definition: This is where
you write the definition of the
Aztec Establish Tenochtitlan***
Using your textbook;
Inca Empire begins to Expand
1. Put these events in the right
chronological order,
Maya empire reaches peak.***
2. Also include a picture
Asian hunters enter north America*** symbolizing EACH event.
3. and write 2-3 sentences
Last Ice Age ends
briefly describing the
The Crusades begin
events marked with***.
Rise of Olmec in Mexico
Beginnings of Civilization; Timeline Tutorial Project
1. Iroquois form League of Five Nations
2. Jamestown Settled
3. England defeats Spanish Armada
4. John Cabot sails to Newfoundland
Using your textbook;
1. Put these events in the right
chronological order,
2. Also include a picture
symbolizing EACH event.
3. and write 2-3 sentences
briefly describing the events.
5. Christopher Columbus reaches
6. Martin Luther promotes church
7. Pilgrims found Plymouth
Exploring the Americas Timeline Project
Early Peoples
•The Journey from Asia.
• The first Americans arrived
THOUSANDS of years ago.
• By 1500ad millions of Native
Americans lived on North and
South America.
• It is suspected that the early people
crossed a land bridge between
Siberia and Alaska.
• They did this to find food during an
Ice Age.
Early Americans
 Early Americans were Nomads
(people who moved place to place).
• They were also hunter-gatherer
• They hunted things such as the
Wooly Mammoths.
• They used spears to kill bison,
mastodons, and mammoths.
They used the spears as throwing
 As the large animals disappeared they
had to find new sources for food.
• Deer, birds, rodents, fish, and smaller
 The BIG discovery however was in
Mexico where they discovered how to
plant and grow Maize (corn).
• They also grew pumpkins, beans,
 With the surplus of food, the
population began to increase.
Permanent Settlement
 Since these people knew they
would have food from their
harvest they began to create
permanent houses, and to expand
their culture.
 These houses were made of clay,
brick, wood, stone.
 Agriculture changed the culture
by allowing these people to have
more free time.
 Thee major civilizations existed in the Americas, they were
the Mayas, the Aztecs, and the Incas.
Early American Civilizations
The Maya
 The Maya were in present-day Mexico.
 They planted;
• Maize (corn), beans, sweet potatoes.
 They were ruled by their religious
leaders. (Theocracy)
 They also were advanced scientifically
and created and used a very accurate
system for telling time/calendar.
 The Maya civilization began to decline in
Mayan Calendar
The Aztec
 The Aztec civilization began in the
 The built their capital on an island in
the middle of Lake Texcoco.
• Their capital was called
• At its height Tenochtitlan was the
largest city in the Americas.
• The Aztecs were conquered by the
Spanish Conquistadore Hernan
 They didn’t put up much of a fight
because of disease and the Spaniards
superior weapons.
Aztec Human Sacrifice Worksheet (10pts)
The Inca
 The Inca Empire became the
largest of the three.
 Their capital was Cuzco. They
had an excellent emperor named
Pachacuti, he helped to build a
militaristic empire.
North American People
 North American civilizations were
also flourishing long before
Europeans crossed the Atlantic
 Some of the most advanced
cultures were the Hohokam,
Anasazi, and the Mound
Anasazi Cliff Dwellings
The Hohokam
 They lived in present day
Arizona. They flourished
from 300ad-1300ad.
 They were very advanced at
utilizing irrigation systems.
 They also left behind a lot of
pottery and art.
The Anasazi
 The Anazazi were present during
the same time as the Hohokam
 They lived in the “Four Corners”
area. (Present day Utah, Colorado,
Arizona, and New Mexico.
 The Anaszai lived in Cliffdwellings.
 Adena and Hopewell were two of the groups known as the
mound builders. They built mounds similar to the stone
pyramids of the Maya and Aztecs.
 The Great Serpent Mound looks like a giant snake winding
across the ground.
The Mound Builders
Other Native North
 The Inuit people lived way
up in North America, around
the Arctic Ocean.
 They built Igloos and their
clothing was made of furs
and sealskin (was warm and
 They were expert hunter and
Inuit People
Peoples of
 Tlingit, Haida, and Chinook
thea wayWest
of life that used
the resources of the Forest and the
 They had wooden houses, canoes,
and used spears and nets.
 They fished a lot of Salmon.
People of the
These people were descendents of
the Anasazi. The Hopi, Acoma,
and the Zuni.
 They built their homes out of a type
of mudbrick called Adobe.
 They raised a wide variety of crops.
 These people were joined in the
1500’s by the Apache and the
• Unlike the others the Apache and
Navajo were hunter-gatherer
Peoples of the Plains
 The peoples of the Great Plains
(central north America) were
 When they moved they brought with
them EVERYTHING. They also lived
in tepees.
 Eventually these people became
skilled horse riders and hunted while
on horseback. They also utilized
horses during warfare.
 These people had a much more complex political systems.
 The Iroquois and Cherokee
 They utilized many law codes and federations that linked different groups.
 Iroquois Nations
 Onondaga, Seneca, Mohawk, Oneida, Cayuga.
 These were all tribes that were once at war, then were united in the
Iroquois League.
Peoples of the East and
Reasons for Exploration
 Three G’s
 God, Glory, Gold.
 Merchants could make tons of money
selling goods from the Orient. If they
had direct routes they could cut out
the middle man and make more
 People wanted to spread Christianity.
 During this time the Renaissance
was in full swing in Europe. They
wanted to continue to develop and
utilize new technologies.
 Coming out of the Renaissance
there was an abundance of new
technology that allowed for easier
 Better Maps and better ships were
the two main advances which allowed
for exploration.
 Maps began to show the direction of
ocean currents, and lines of latitude.
They also began to use a compass.
Technology Allowed for
Latitude and Longitude Map Homework
African Trading
 The African Kingdoms on the west
coast of Africa also benefited from
these new technologies.
 They traded gold, copper, and Iron
with Islamic nations, as well as
European nations.
 Eventually they traded what?
 Slaves.
 How did the Slave trade begin?
Early Exploration
Causes of European Exploration
 When Columbus and
other early explorers
began to sail, their maps
only showed three
• Europe, Asia, and Africa.
• They also did not realize
how large the oceans
actually are.
• Do we really know
anything about oceans
• European desire for new trade routes
(mostly to the orient)
• Growing power and wealth of European
•Competition for trade.
•Missionaries’ desire to convert others to
Effects of European Exploration
Knowledge grows about other regions.
Europeans and Native Americans clash.
Enslavement of Africans
Rivalry in the Americas grows.
Early Explorers
 Bartholomeu Dias (Portugal, 1487)
 Sent to explore the southernmost part
of Africa. (Cape of Good Hope)
 Vasco da Gama (Portugal, 1497)
 Sent from Portugal with four ships.
Sailed around the Cape of Good Hope
and visited cities along the coast of East
Africa. Eventually making it to India.
 Christopher Columbus sailed
for Spain even though he was
 He thought he could reach Asia by
sailing west.
 Eventually Spain’s King
Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
funded Columbus plan to sail west
to get east.
 On August 3, 1492
Columbus set sail from Spain
with three ships.
 The Nina, The Pinta, and the
Santa Maria.
 Two months later Columbus
and his crew spotted land in
present day Bahamas.
Christopher Columbus Biography Homework (15pts)
The Vikings
 Centuries before Columbus had
reached the Americas, the Vikings
had visited Iceland and Greenland
and established colonies.
 The Vikings tried to establish
permanent settlement in the
Americas however they did not
succeed. The “World” did not
discover the Americas until
Columbus’ voyage.
Spain in America
 The Spanish had a large presence
in the development of America.
 Spanish Conquistadores came
over to Central and Southern
America and conquered the
remnants of the Incas, and Aztecs.
Cortes Conquers the
 Hernan Cortes landed on the East
Coast of Mexico in 1519. He like
the other Conquistadores was after
Gold and Glory.
 He had roughly 500 soldiers, some
horses, and some cannons.
 Cortes made alliances with the
small tribes that were conquered by
the Aztecs. Eventually with the help
of these tribes Cortes overthrew
Montezuma (leader of the Aztecs)
 This caused the Aztec Empire to
dissipate and Spain gained control of
the region.
Conquers Peru
 Francisco Pizzaro was the
downfall of the Incan Empire.
 In 1532 he captured the Incan ruler
Atahualpa and destroyed most of
the Inca army.
 Without an effective leader, Pizzaro
and his troops quickly stomped out
the Incas.
Inca Technology
• Bows and
• Spears
• Never had seen
guns or armor.
Technology Difference
Why did Spain
 Why could
the smaller Spanish Armies
take over empires many times larger than
 Weapons (guns, cannons, horses)
 Assistance from other tribes (many
tribes hated the Aztecs and united with
the Spanish against them.)
 Disease (smallpox wiped out LARGE
groups of Native Americans.)
Ponce De Leon
 Pone De Leon made the first
Spanish landing in North
America. Present Day Florida.
 He was searching for the
Fountain of Youth.
 In 1565 The Spanish established
their first settlement in North
America. St. Augustine.
Spanish settlements
 Spanish law called for three kinds of
settlements in the Americas;
 Pueblos
 Towns, and the center of trade.
 Missions
 Religious communities, usually including a
small town, farmland, and a church.
 Presido
 Fort that was usually built by a mission.
San Jose Mission
Encomienda and the Plantation System
 In the 1500’s the Spanish government
granted Conquistadores encomendia.
• This allowed them to demand taxes and
labor from the Native Americans on their
 Many plantations began to rise to export
Tobacco Leaves
tobacco and sugarcane. A plantation is a
large estate.
• Native Americans originally worked the
farms, however they were eventually
replaced by slaves from Africa.
Sugar Cane
The Columbian Exchange
 Two parts of the globe were now connected. The Americas to the west,
and Europe/Africa, to the east.
 This led to an exchange of plants, animals, and diseases that altered life
on both sides of the Atlantic.
 Portugal and Spain had a trade
(The Treaty of Tordesillas)
that split the Americas between
Spain and Portugal.
 However other nations
completely ignored the treaty
when the came to the Americas.
 These other countries were
England, France, and the
More Countries begin to
French Open Trading Posts
 France had shown relatively little
interest in establishing colonies in
the Americas.
 They viewed North America as an
opportunity to make large
profits selling furs, and trading
 Beaver pelts and furs were very
popular in Europe and the French
made large profits.
Dutch West
India Company
 The Dutch established a
trading colonies in the
 Like England, France,
Spain, and Portugal they
also established
Permanent colonies.
Colonies Map Project
 Utilize the blank map to
label/color the 13 original
 Also include the date which
the Colonies were created.
Colonies Map Answers
Early English Settlements
 England and Spain had been heading
toward war for years.
 They were rivals in nearly every
 Religion, territory, exploration.
 The English finally achieved victory in
1604 and defeated the Spanish
 England was now free to start colonies
in North America, Spanish Naval
Dominance was over.
Lost Colony of Roanoke
 There was an English colony on
Roanoke Island. (coast of
North Carolina).
 Roanoke had one very harsh
winter, when the winter was
over people went to the island to
help settle.
 Everyone was gone.
 The only clue they found was the
word Croatoan. The colonist
were never seen again.
 Captain John Smith was an
experienced soldier and explorer.
He became the governor of
 Pocahontas did NOT marry John
Smith. She married his successor
John Rolfe.
 Jamestown became the first
permanent English colony.
 The town almost didn’t succeed.
After a hard winter and Captain
John Smiths return to England
the colony failed to stockpile
enough food. By early 1608 only
38 people were still alive.
 When Tobacco from the west
indies was introduced it became a
commercial success and
guaranteed that Jamestown would
 Don’t write this down.
 The marriage of Pocahontas to John Rolfe in 1614 was
followed by eight years of peace between the Native
Americans and the English. When the Rolfes went to
England, Pocahontas was received with royal honor by King
James I and Queen Anne. When Pocahontas died of smallpox
in 1617, Thomas Rolfe (her son), was educated in England.
Upon Thomas’s return to Virginia, he became an important
settler. Today many prominent Virginians claim to be his
New England Colonies
 Unlike the Jamestown settlers the
next major wave of settlers came
to the Americas searching for
Religious Freedom.
 The two major groups were the;
 Puritans: They wanted to reform
the Anglican Church (Church of
 Separatists: They wanted to set
up their own churches.
 Separatists gained their religious
freedom by giving the Virginia
Company a share of any profits
they made.
 They also considered themselves
Pilgrims because their journey
had a religious purpose.
Mayflower Compact
 They Mayflowers passengers planned
to settle in the Virginia colony. Instead
they made land fall at Cape Cod.
 Before they made landfall they all
signed The Mayflower Compact
which they agreed to follow all laws
passed and establish a civil body
 Basically this is a foundation for a
representative government. Where
people give up some of their freedoms
for the greater good.
Help From the Indians
 During their first winter in Cape Cod
nearly ½ of the settlers died from
malnutrition and exposure.
 In the spring some Native Americans
befriended the remaining colonists.
 Squanto and Samoset, showed the
Pilgrims how to grow corn, beans,
and pumpkins and where to hunt and
 The Pilgrims also signed a treaty with
Massasoit one of the major tribal
leaders, and lived in harmony…
New Settlements
 In 1625 another large group of
people came seeking religious
freedom, and to establish a society
based on the bible.
 These people were the Puritans.
 John Winthrop, became the
colony governor.
 They settled in Boston.
 During the 1630’s more than
15,000 Puritans moved to
Massachusetts to escape religious
persecution and hard economic
times in England. This became
known as the Great Migration.
Expansions into Connecticut
and Rhode Island
 Some of the colonists did not like
the way Winthrop was running the
 They and some of their followers
moved to close areas to establish
their own colonies.
 Hartfod Connecticut and into
Rhode Island.
More Religious Freedom
 Some people felt that their religious
freedom was even challenged in
America. They didn’t want a
religious government, they only
wanted to practice anyway that they
chose to.
 This allowed for more and more
colonies to begin to form in North
East America.
Conflict with the Natives
 With the Europeans continually
increasing in numbers, and
expanding their colonial presence
there was also many conflicts with
the Native Americans.
 New colonies would move into
Native land without permission or
 Many battles occurred between the
colonists and the Indians resulting in
deaths on both sides.
Religious Freedom (15pts)
 Take out a separate piece of binder paper. Write ½ a page
explaining why having freedom of religion is important.
 Write another ½ a page about what happens when people try
to force their own religious views on others.
 Ex) Crusades, Terrorists, Jihads, Suicide bombers.
Middle Colonies
 New Amsterdam, became
New York
 New Jersey
 Pennsylvania
 Pennsylvania was nearly as large as
 Its founder was William Penn, a
Southern Colonies
 Maryland (founded by Lord
 Instead of focusing on just Tobacco as
their crops they made every farmer
who planted tobacco had to plant
two acres of corn.
 Established as a safe place for
Catholics escaping from England.
 Virginia was continually expanding.
 Carolinas were also settled.
1st Permanent Settlement
Reasons Founded
Founders or Leaders
Religious Freedom
John winthrop
New Hampshire
Profit from trade and Fishing
Ferdinando Gorges, John Mason
Rhode Island
Religious Freedom
Roger Williams
Profit from fur trade, farming;
religious and political freedom
Thomas Hooker
New York
Expand trade
Dutch Settlers
Expand trade
Swedish Settlers
New Jersey
Profit from selling land
John Berkeley, George Carteret
Profit from selling land; religious
William Penn
Expand trade
John Smith
To sell land; religious freedom
Cecil Calvert
North Carolina
Profit from trade and selling land
Group of Eight Aristocrats
South Carolina
Profit from trade and selling land
Group of eight aristocrats
Religious freedom; protection
against spanish florida; safe home
for debtors.
New England Colonies
Middle Colonies
Southern Colonies
New France
 The British were not the only
Europeans colonizing North
 The Spanish and French had
created colonies of their own.
 French founded Quebec in 1608.
 Most of their settlements were
along rivers as their main reason
for being in North America was to
capture beavers and sell their pelts.
Flag of New France
New Spain
 In the 1600’s while other European
nations were colonizing North
America, Spain had solidified its
hold in Mexico, Central, and
South America.
 They also had Missions in
 A mission is a religious settlement
established to convert people to a
particular faith.
Life in the Colonies
 The population of the Colonies
expanded greatly. From 250,000 in
1700 to 2,500,000 people in 1770.
 Large influxes of immigration, as
well as people having LARGE
families led to this population
 All colonies sustained themselves
through farming.
Triangular Trade
 One of the largest trading routes
involved the Colonies, England,
and West Africa. This was called
Triangular Trade.
Sugar and Molasses went to the
Was turned into rum
The rum was sent to Africa and
traded for slaves
The slaves went to where the sugar
and molasses were being farmed…
The Middle
 The Middle Passage was part of this
Triangular trade.
 It was the part from
Africacolonies/west indies.
 African slaves would be put on a ship and
locked down below during the entire
voyage from Africa to America.
Southern Economy
 The Southern Economy turned to
certain types of farming. Tobacco
and Rice were two big crops.
 Tobacco was the principal cash crop. It
was farmed in the south, then sold in
 It was hard to farm and was labor
intensive (led to slaves)
 In South Carolina and Georgia they
grew a lot of rice. This was also labor
intensive and was a cause for more
slaves to be sent to America.
 Most slaves worked and lived on
Plantations. Some worked inside the
house (house slaves), but most were
used for physical labor.
 Slaves were often whipped, or hung
for breaking the established rules.
Those who ran away were usually
 A majority of southerners did NOT
own slaves.
 The theory of mercantilism is
 As a nations trade grows, its gold
reserves increase, and the nation
becomes more powerful.
 In order to insure that they were
making money England had to
make sure that they were
exporting (sending out) more
goods than they were importing
(taking in from foreign markets).
 With the American Colonies in full
swing Britain wanted to find ways to
benefit the most from their trade.
 Navigation Acts: England
controlled where the colonies goods
went, and who shipped them. They
ensured that ENGLAND and NOT
the COLONIES were in charge of
all products.
 Certain products like sugar and
tobacco were ONLY allowed to be
shipped to England directly.
 Of course some Colonist didn’t like these
laws and wanted to ensure that THEY
were the ones making money. They were
called smugglers.
 They traded illegally with other countries.
 These controls over trade would
cause major problems in the future
between England and the Colonies.
Smuggler’s Cove
 You will draw a picture of your “Perfect” smuggler’s cove (hideout)
 You will also write a 2 pg FICTIONAL story about a crew of smugglers,
and their adventure.
 Include names of main smugglers (captain, some crew etc)
 What they were after (treasure, money, different ship)
 Imagine you are writing a STORY for a movie or TV show.
 If you don’t want to draw a picture you can write a 2.5-3pg story.
 If you don’t want to write a story you can draw a comic strip of at least 8 scenes.
Colonial Government
 By the 1600’s English colonists had
many ideas about how a government
should run.
 They already had the idea that a
government should not be all powerful,
even if run by a king.
 There were attempts to limit the kings
authority in the past.
 Magna Carta 1215 established a
limited monarchy.
Colonial Government
 They brought with them ideas about
how a government should run.
 Trial by jury
 Limited governmental power
 Representative government.
 These ideas were NOT widely
practiced by other nations.
Different Types of Colonies
 Charter Colonies (Connecticut, Rhode Island)
 Established by settlers who had been given a charter, or a grant of rights
and privileges.
 They elected their own governors and members of the legislature.
 Proprietary Colonies (Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania)
 Given land by Britain, free to rule as they wished.
 Royal Colonies (Georgia, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, North Carolina, south Carolina, Virginia.
 Britain directly ruled all royal colonies. The King appointed the governor
and council. This led to a lot of conflict between the colonist and their
colonies leaders.
Voting Rights
 Generally only white men who
owned property could vote.
 Nearly all women, indentured
servants, poor, and African Americans
could not vote.
 Despite these limitations MORE
people in the Colonies could
vote than anywhere else in the
Great Awakening
 From the 1720’s to the 1740’s a religious
revival was taking place.
 The Great Awakening was a rebirth of
strong religious faith.
 Two important preachers during this time
were; Jonathan Edwards and George
 The great awakening led to the formation
and reform of many new churches, and
Colonial Life
 The culture in the colonies began to
drastically change from that in
 A colonial farm was both a home and
a workplace.
 Mothers and fathers raised children,
 Women Cooked, made butter and
cheese, prepared food. Make clothes,
raised chickens and cows. They also
worked in the fields next to their
 MenHeads of the house, managed
the farms and represented the family
in the community.
Youth in the Colonies
 The colonies sons and daughters often
became apprentices of someone else.
 They learned a trade, or became more
specialized in the workforce.
 Most colonists valued education. The
children were usually taught to read and
write at home by the parents.
 New laws began to pass in some colonies
that ensured there was access to public
 These schools were almost always ran and
taught by women.
Great Awakening Worksheet (15pts)
 Why is it important that they went to
and its Effects
 During the middle 1700’s the
colonist were influenced by the
 This was the spread of ideas,
knowledge, reason, and science to
improve daily life.
 The best known American scientist
was Benjamin Franklin.
 Another important event was
taking place regarding Freedom of
the Press…
Freedom of Speech?
 Freedom of Speech was NOT a common
occurrence during this time period.
 In many places if you spoke ill of a king
or lord you were severely punished.
 In America however John Peter
Zenger publically criticised the
governor of New York. He was brought
up on charged and found NOT GUILTY.
 This was an important stepping stone in
Americas development of Freedoms.
British and French Tensions
 Great Britain and France had been fierce
competitor's in nearly everything for
centuries. Often going to war.
 Now English Colonies had expanded near
French Territories in the Americas.
Native Americans
 Both the French and the English knew that
Native Americans (Indians) could be a
valued ally in times of war.
 The French had already established long
standing relationships with the Natives
while the British had not…
 Why?
 French were mostly interested in trading and not
permanent settlement.
 English had taken land from the Natives by force
and were planning to stay permanently.
George Washington’s
First Command
 In 1754 at just 21 years old George
Washington received his first
command. He was only a Lt. Colonel.
 He was defeated by the French and
taken captive, however he was later
 Even though he was defeated legends
spread of his Courage and he was
regarded as a Hero for starting the
fight against the French.
Albany Plan of Union
 Benjamin Franklin proposed a plan
known as the Albany Plan of
Union in which 11 of the colonies
would be under the same rule, in
order to protect themselves against
the French.
this plan.
 Why?
 They didn’t want to give up their
individual powers.
 By not being united they were not as
strong to fight the French.
French and Indian War
 With George Washington’s defeat at Fort
Necessity in 1754 it marked the beginning
of a mini-war between the Colonist and the
French and their Indian allies.
French and Indian War
Worksheet (20pts)
New Wars
 Indians fought on both the side of
Britain and France.
 This was just one small war between
Britain and France, it was more a war
over global dominance than over
territory in the Americas.
 This war also started another war back
in Europe, The Seven Years War,
between France and Britain.
Pitt Takes Charge
 For several years the English were losing
in both America and over seas.
 William Pitt then took power as Prime
Minister, he was a brilliant military
 He began to pay for war supplies for the
Americas out of Britain’s treasury. Raising
up an enormous DEBT.
 Why would this debt matter later on?
 Colonist were forced to pay increased taxes.
The Fall of New France
 Under Pitts guidance the Colonist and
Britain begin to win. By 1759 France
had all but given up.
 The Treaty of Paris
 1763, Forced French to give a majority
of their lands to Britain. Spain who was
Frances ally was forced to give Florida
to great Britain.
No more France
 With the Treaty of Paris signed,
France was no longer a power in
the Americas. The continent was
now basically divided between
England and Spain.
 The dividing line was the
Mississippi River.
Proclamation of 1763
 The Proclamation of 1763 stopped
all westward expansion by Colonists,
at the Appalachian Mountains.
 This angered many people, however
with this Proclamation and the end of
the French and Indian War, there was a
short period of peace.
Test Review Questions
What is an apprenticeship? Why was it important to have apprentices?
2. What was the Albany Plan of Union, did this plan work why/why not?
3. What was the Proclamation of 1763, what was the colonial reaction to this?
4. Why did more Indians side with the French in the French and Indian War?
5. Describe triangular trade, and how the middle passage is involved.
6. Describe George Washington’s early career, did anything of significance happen
to him?
 Unit II Standards Review HW
Unit 3 Vocabulary (20pts)
Benedict Arnold
Thomas Paine
General Charles Cornwallis
Battle of York Town
Daughters of Liberty
If you copy the definitions directly
from the text book, you will only
receive 50% of the points. Use your
own words to define.
Vocab Poster = 5pts.
Word (on back)
Definition: This is where you
write the definition of the word.
Front of Card
Taxation Without Representation
 With the French and Indian War
leaving a huge financial debt for
Great Britain they passed many
new taxes and laws for the
 They punished smugglers more
 They began to enact a series of
new taxes.
New Taxes
 1764 Sugar Act
 1765 The Stamp Act
 1767 Townshend Acts
Taxation Without
 With all of the new taxes the colonists were
 Why would they be mad?
 They had taxes passed on them without being
able to have a voice in the British Parliament.
 That is Taxation without representation.
 Being taxed without having a voice in the government.
 Being taxed by people 3000 miles away from them.
The Sugar Act
 George Greenville the Prime Minister of
Britain tried to increase revenue (income)
for Great Britain. One way he did this was
by passing new taxes.
 The Sugar Act was designed to stop
smuggling. It LOWERED the taxes on
molasses (raw form of sugar) in order to
stop the colonist from smuggling it.
 How would this work?
 If something cost less, you might pay for it,
instead of steal it.
 THE DOWNSIDE: It also allowed officers
to seize goods from smugglers without
going to court.
The Stamp Act
 This act placed a tax on almost ALL
printed material.
 Newspapers, pamphlets, wills, playing
 Because SO MANY items were taxed it
effected nearly every colonist.
 The Stamp Act was heavily
 In March 1766 British Parliament
gave in to the Colonists demands
and repealed (stopped) the Stamp
Townshend Acts
 Very soon after the Stamp Act was
repealed Parliament passed the
Townshend Acts.
 These new taxes taxed EVERYTHING
imported into the colonies.
 Included everyday items such as glass, tea,
paper, lead. All products that the colonies
did not produce and were forced to
Comic Book Taxes… Project (20pts)
 Draw a comic depicting peoples reactions as they got each
new tax… (make sure the taxes are in the right order.)
 Include the following
 Years the taxes were put into effect
 Each scene should show how a town reacted to ANOTHER tax,
OR show the items that were being taxed.
 Minimum of three scenes.
 Alternatively, you can create a short story/diary entry to complete
this assignment (min 1.5pg)
 Use your notes to ensure you have the right dates/things being
taxed. (There are three separate taxes)
Boston Massacre
 Tensions between the Colonist and the
British were at an all time high.
 Protests over taxes were common
throughout the colonies.
 On March 5, 1770 that tension
boiled over.
 The Boston Massacre.
 Angry townspeople cornered British
“Redcoats” and pelted them with rocks,
snowballs, and bats.
 The Redcoats responded and shoot 7
times. Killing 5 colonists.
The Boston Tea Party
 Another act was passed in 1773. The
Tea Act. This act made Tea easily
shippable INTO the colonies, how does
that factor into the Townshend act?
 Samuel Adams and the Boston sons
of Liberty snuck onto the Dartmouth
(ship) December 16th 1773, disguised as
Indians wearing their hair in Mohawks,
threw 342 chests of Tea Overboard.
(Equivalent to 1,000,000 dollars of
today’s money.
 The King of England said of this event
“we must master them or totally leave them
 What does that mean?
Boston Event’s
 You are now responsible for
completing the Boston Tea Party
interview assignment, and the
Boston Massacre propaganda
 Do the INTERVIEW project
 Interview Project is due one week
from today.
Reaction to the Tea Party
 1774 Parliament passed the Coercive
Acts which was intended to punish
Boston. It closed down the Boston
Harbor until they paid for the spilled
Tea. This meant that Boston would get
no food, or other supplies that arrived
by ship.
 They were also not allowed to have
town meetings. They were in effect
losing their rights.
A Call to Arms
 Knowing what was to come all of
the Colonies (except Georgia)
sent delegates to a meeting in
 September 1774, 55 men
gathered together to establish a
political body to represent
AMERICAN interest and
challenge British Control.
 They called the new group The
Continental Congress.
Important Delegates
 John Adams
 Samuel Adams
 John Jay
 Richard Henry Lee
John Adams
 Patrick Henry
 George Washington.
George Washington
Samuel Adams
Decisions of the
 The delegates all had different ideas but
were united by a common cause and
 They drafted a statement of grievances
calling to Britain that 13 acts passed since
1763 should be repealed.
 They also voted to boycott (protest) all
British goods and trade.
 They also decided to arm the
Types of Soldiers
 The colonists did not have a large
standing army. Instead they relied on a
few different types of soldiers.
 Militia: groups of citizen soldiers.
Normal people armed with guns.
 Minutemen: men who promised
they would fight and be ready within a
minute. (basically they lived normally
until they were needed).
 The Colonists were preparing for the
battle that everyone knew was coming.
Britain’s Response
 The British knew what was coming
and King George said “blows must
decide” who will control the Americas.
 By April 1775 several thousand
redcoats (British Soldiers) were in the
The First Battle Lexington and Concord
 The redcoats found out that the colonists were keeping their arms in a
depot in Concord.
 April 18, 1775 the redcoats met a force of about 70 minutemen. A
shot was fired, then both sides let loose. Eight minutemen lay dead,
then they retreated.
 When the British arrived in Concord they found that the militias
weapons had already been moved.
 As the British rode toward Boston farmers, blacksmiths, saddle
makers, etc all hid and shot at the redcoats. By the time they reached
Boston 174 had been shot and wounded, and 73 had been killed.
Benedict Arnold
 Benedict Arnold was a Captain in
the Connecticut militia.
 He switched sides and became a
General in the British army.
 He was known as a traitor.
Benedict Arnold Homework
Building an Army
 After Lexington and Concord they
sent out calls for people to join the
 20,000 people joined and for
weeks the British and American
troops waited to see who would
make the next move.
The Path to War (25pts)
 Make a cause and effect chart which depicts reasons why the
Colonies went to war with Great Britain.
 Include…
 Taxes (Sugar, Townshend, Stamp)
 Events (Boston tea party, Boston massacre)
 First Battle (Lexington and Concord)
 You can do this assignment 1 of 2 ways.
 WRITE 2-3 Sentences about each major event for cause, and 2-3 sentences
for effect.
 Draw a comic strip that depicts the cause and effect of each event. Write a
½ page summary as well.
The Battle of Bunker
 June 16, 1775. 1200 militia set up
defense atop of Bunker Hill. The British
decided to take the hill.
The British charged up the hill and the
Americans were winning… however
they were running low on gunpowder
(basically bullets).
“Don’t fire until you see the whites of
their eyes” was a famous quote from this
Eventually the Americans ran out of
gunpowder and retreated.
The British won the battle however lost
1000 men. They now realized this
would not be an easy war.
Picking Sides
 With a revolution underway the average
colonist had to pick sides.
 Loyalists: Choose to side with the British.
 They thought that taxes were not reason
enough to rebel.
 They thought the British would win and
wanted to be on the winning side.
 Patriots: were determined to fight the
British until they won their independence.
Moving Toward
 The Second Continental Congress
began to govern the colonies.
 It set up the printing of money
 It created a Continental Army
 Appointed George Washington as the Armies
Important Members of the Second
continental Congress
 John and Samuel Adams
 Patrick Henry
 Richard Henry Lee
 George Washington.
 Benjamin Franklin: one of the most respected men in the
 John Hancock: Wealth Merchant who funded many patriot
 Thomas Jefferson: Brilliant thinker and writer.
Last Chance
 In July of 1774 in order to avoid going
to full scale war the Second
Continental Congress sent King
George a petition called The Olive
Branch Petition.
 It ensured the king that the colonist
only desired peace.
 It asked the King to protect the
colonists rights.
 King George refused, and sent even
more troops to America.
Common Sense
Common Sense Primary Source Homework
 In 1776 Thomas Paine published a
pamphlet called Common Sense. It
called for the complete independence
from Britain.
 “Stop squabbling over taxes, and struggle for
 Common Sense Handout
Declaration of
 Jefferson was chosen to write the
 July 4, 1776 the Declaration of
Independence was approved.
 John Hancock was the first to
sign the Declaration.
Declaration of Independence
 The Declaration has three major sections.
 Preamble (introduction)
 Declaration of Natural Rights
 List of Grievances
 When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one
people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with
another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate
and equal station to which the laws of nature and of natures god
entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires
that they should declare the causes which impel them to the
Declaration of Natural Rights
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they
are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these
are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are institution among Men, deriving
their just powers from the consent of the governed,
That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is
the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new
Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers
in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence indeed, will dictate that Governments long established
should not be change for light and transiet causes; and accordingly all
experience hate shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils
are sufferable, that to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they
are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing
invariably the same Object evinces a design to reducte them under absolute
Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and
to provide new Guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies; and such is now the necessity
which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the
present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all
having in direct object the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To
prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance,
unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so
suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people,
unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the legislature, a
right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant
from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them
into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his
invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected;
whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people
at large for their exercise; the state remaining in the meantime exposed to all the
dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing
the laws for naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their
migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent to laws for
establishing judiciary powers.
He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the
amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass
our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our
He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution,
and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should
commit on the inhabitants of these states:
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing taxes on us without our consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury:
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses:
For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province,
establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as
to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same
absolute rule in these colonies:
For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering
fundamentally the forms of our governments:
For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with
power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and
waging war against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our towns, and destroyed
the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete
the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances
of cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and
totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms
against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren,
or to fall themselves by their hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavored to bring
on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known
rule of warfare, is undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most
humble terms: our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated
injury. A prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define
a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned
them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an
unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the
circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to
their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of
our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably
interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the
voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the
necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest
of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
Resolution of Independence by the
United States
We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America, in
General Congress, assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the
world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by the
authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and
declare, that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be free and
independent states; that they are absolved from all allegiance to the
British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the
state of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as
free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude
peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts
and things which independent states may of right do. And for the support
of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine
Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes
and our sacred honor.
People who Signed the Declaration
New Hampshire: Josiah Bartlett, William Whipple, Matthew Thornton
Massachusetts: John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, Elbridge
Rhode Island: Stephen Hopkins, William Ellery
Connecticut: Roger Sherman, Samuel Huntington, William Williams, Oliver Wolcott
New York: William Floyd, Philip Livingston, Francis Lewis, Lewis Morris
New Jersey: Richard Stockton, John Witherspoon, Francis Hopkinson, John Hart, Abraham Clark
Pennsylvania: Robert Morris, Benjamin Rush, Benjamin Franklin, John Morton, George
Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, James Wilson, George Ross
Delaware: Caesar Rodney, George Read, Thomas McKean
Maryland: Samuel Chase, William Paca, Thomas Stone, Charles Carroll of Carrollton
Virginia: George Wythe, Richard Henry Lee, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Harrison, Thomas
Nelson, Jr., Francis Lightfoot Lee, Carter Braxton
North Carolina: William Hooper, Joseph Hewes, John Penn
South Carolina: Edward Rutledge, Thomas Heyward, Jr., Thomas Lynch, Jr., Arthur Middleton
Georgia: Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton
The American Revolution
 The American Revolution lasted
from 1776-1783.
 America declared its
independence in 1776, war was
 Both sides thought the war would
be short.
 English thought they would crush
the rebellion.
 Patriots thought the British would
give up. After losing a few battles.
Military Forces
 British
 Strongest Navy in the world.
 Experienced well trained army.
 Wealth of a worldwide empire.
 Population of 8million.
• American
No navy.
No regular army.
No military experience.
Weapons and ammo in
short supply.
– Population of 2.5million.
– Some colonials didn’t
support the revolution.
Loyalists, or neutrals.
 Loyalists: Those who remained loyal to
Britain and opposed the war for
independence. Also called Tories.
 1/5 Americans were loyalists. (Speculated
maybe as many as 1/3.)
“Neighbor was against neighbor, father
against son and son against father. He
that would not thrust his own blade
through his brother’s heart was called an
infamous villain.”
 They supported the British for many
 1. They supported whoever they thought
would win.
 2. They belonged to the church of England.
 3. Scared they would lose their jobs.
African American
 Many African American slaves were
 Why?
 The British offered the enslaved
people freedom if they fought on
their side.
 A lot of these freed slaves ended up
in Canada or Sierra Leone, Africa.
Patriot Advantages
 What were some advantages the
patriots had over the redcoats?
 Fighting on their own ground. (Easier
to defend than conquer)
 British had to ship soldiers and
supplies across the ocean.
 British mercenaries fought for money,
while Patriots fought for freedom.
 Americans had George Washington,
a great military leader.
Americans needed
 As the war continued American soldiers
began to leave the army (they enlisted
for only 1 year) or they ran away from
the army.
 Soldiers were desperately needed.
 African Americans were now
allowed to serve and fight on the
side of the Americans.
 They fought for money, or to gain their
America’s Flag
 1777-1795 The continental congress
designed America’s first flag.
13 stripes alternating between red and
13 stars white in a blue field
representing a new constellation.
Red = courage
White = purity of ideals
Blue = strength and Unity of the
War wages on…
 The British and American armies traded
many victories and defeats…
 The Americans gained an important
victory at the Battle of Saratoga.
 The defeated British (5,700)
surrendered while a Patriot band played
“Yankee Doodle”
Flag Project (15pts)
 Create your own CUSTOM FLAG.
 On the back of the paper write what your
flag represents,
1. What do the colors stand for?
2. What is your country called?
3. What type of government would
your country have?
Saratoga’s after effects…
Cause of French-American
• Longstanding hostility between
Britain and France.
•Conflict between Britain and France
during French and Indian War.
• Victory at Saratoga boosts French
confidence in Patriots.
Effects of French-American
• France lends money to the
Continental Congress
•France sends soldiers and ships to help
American forces.
• Americans win independence.
 October 1777 after the Battle of
Saratoga American spirits were at an all
time high.
 Saratoga was a turning point in
the war.
 In February 1778 the French declared
their support and formed an alliance
with the Americans. They sent money,
equipment, troops to aid the Patriots.
 Benjamin Franklin was largely
responsible for this. He spent over a
year in France gaining support for the
The War at Sea
 The British had the worlds most
powerful navy.
 Americans were blockaded by the
 The Continental Congress approved
privateers, basically pirate ships to go
and fight the British and they could
keep whatever goods they took.
American Independence
 The Battle of Yorktown
 General Washington had utilized the
French’s aid to trap General
Cornwallis (England).
 Cornwallis was outnumbered by
American troops, as well as cut of by
the French in the sea. He was
 When British supplies began to run
low it happened….
 October 19 1781 General Cornwallis
handout himself,
(15pts) he sent up
 He
“the little drummer boy”
 Yorktown was not the “final
battle” in the American
Revolution, however it signified
the end of the war as it
convinced the British that the
war was too costly to pursue.
Treaty of Paris
 England and America now had to
work out a treaty.
 America sent its delegates
 Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, John
 The Treaty of Paris was signed
September 3, 1783.
 Great Britain recognized the United
States as an independent Nation.
Why America Won
 They were fighting on their home field.
The British had to rely on shipping
troops and supplies.
 As soon as the British ships were stopped
(privateers and the French) they lost
their support.
 Help from foreign nations.
 Loans from France (money, troops,
weapons, ships).
 Spanish attacks on the French in
 “Peoples movement”
 The war wasn’t about countries or
battles. It was about peoples
determination to be free.
Unit 3 test review questions (21pts)
(2-3 Sentences each)
1. What act was designed to stop smugglers? How did this act work?
2. Which major battle of the American Revolution is considered a
turning point in the war? Why?
What foreign country played a large role in helping America secure
their independence? Describe at least two ways they helped.
Why were many African American loyalist?
Why would people remain loyalist during the revolution?
What is taxation without representation, and why were the Colonist
angered over this?
Why do you think America won their independence, despite having a
weaker military?
Unit III.5 Vocabulary (15pts)
10. Enlightenment
11. Federalism
12. Electoral College
Judicial Branch
If you copy the definitions directly from
the text book, you will only receive 50% of
the points. Use your own words to define.
Vocab Poster = 5pts.
Definition: This is where you
write the definition of the word.
Not United
 Even though the Colonies had won their
independence, they were hardly a
united nation.
 By 1780 every state had their own
Constitution or body of laws.
 They did this because they were scared
to have any one person hold to much
power… Why would they be scared?
 They just rebelled from a King.
King George III
Further Steps to divide power
 The states also established divided
government functions to dilute the
source of power.
 They had a Governor as well as a
Formation of a Republic
 As each state quickly created their
own constitution, they were slow to
create a united nation.
 They did all agree however that they
were to create a Republic.
 A government in which citizens rule
through elected representatives.
 They couldn’t agree on the
organization and types of powers this
republic would have.
America’s First Attempt at Government
 March 1, 1781 The Articles of
Confederation was put into effect.
Creating the United States.
STATES remained the holders of the
majority of power.
Each state was still basically its own
independent nation held together by
a WEAK central government.
Under the AoC if the central government
wanted to do anything they had to get the
states approval.
Under the AoC there was a WEAK
central government and almost all
powers laid with the states.
The Confederation Government
 1781-1789 The confederation years
 Weaknesses
 No strong central government
 Couldn’t pass laws unless 9/13 states
voted yes.
 Couldn’t Amend the AoC unless 13/13
states voted yes.
 Some things it did…
 Expanded foreign trade
 Established policies for expanding
The Northwest Ordinance
 Passed in 1787 established a single
North West Territory out of the lands
north of the Ohio river, and east of the
Mississippi river.
 This land was to be divided into 3-5
more smaller territories.
 When these territories had 60,000
people they could petition to join the
Union as a State.
 Did not allow slaves or indentured
servants in any new lands. This is
Americas first attempt to
limit/stop slavery.
A major weakness of the AoC
 The AoC had so little power that
they could not deal with the
countries financial problems.
 The central government could not
impose taxes, so they printed paper
 The central government and the
states printed their OWN paper
 This led to inflation…
George Washington’s view on the AoC
 George Washington described the
government as “little more than the
shadow without the substance”
 What does that mean?
 Americans started to realize they
needed a stronger central
The Issue of Slavery
 By 1786 11 of the 13 states (all
except South Carolina and Georgia)
Outlawed, or heavily taxed the
importation of enslaved people.
 Although slaves were not really used
in the North, it was still legal.
 In 1787 the North Abolished
The Constitutional Convention
 55 Delegates gathered in Philadelphia in
May 1787. To revise the AoC
 Important people: George Washington,
Benjamin Franklin (Who was 80), James
Wilson, Gouverneur Morris (wrote the
final draft of the US Constitution), James
Madison (called the Father of the
 Articles of Confederation Handout
Setting the Stage
 The convention was to revise the AoC… however that is not
what happened.
 They established rules for how the meetings would progress.
 George Washington was selected to preside over the meetings.
 Each state would have one vote.
 Majority vote
 No meetings unless 7/13 states were represented.
 Doors were to remain closed, and the meetings secret from the
The Virginia Plan
 With the rules set, and the convention
underway a radical idea came forward.
 Edmund Randolph a delegate from
Virginia proposed that the delegates
created a strong central national
government instead of revising the AoC.
 The Virginia Plan was introduced.
 James Madison was behind this plan.
Edmund Randolph
Virginia Plan Details
 Two-house legislature
 Lower house elected by the people.
 Upper house chosen by the Lower
 Number of reps. Per state dependent on
each states population proportional to
the country.
 A Chief executive chosen by the
 A court system.
The New Jersey Plan
 Opposition rose quickly to one of the
Virginia Plans key points.
 Which point do you think?
 They wanted equal representation
instead of being given less power
because of a smaller population.
 They also ONLY wanted to amend and
revise the AoC, by giving the central
government new powers such as taxing
and regulation of trade.
The Big Decision
 The convention was at a standstill.
 Until they decided to create a new
Constitution or to Amend/Revise the
AoC they could not continue.
 On June 19th they decided to work
toward a NEW National
Government based off of the Virginia
 What big problem did they still face?
 Representation based off population or
Big Questions
 Don’t write down.
 Large questions now arose which sparked a
lot of debate.
1. How was the congress to be elected?
2. How would states representation be in
upper and lower houses?
3. Did slaves count as part of the population?
The Great Compromise
 Roger Sherman proposed the
Great Compromise.
 The lower house (The house of
representatives) would vary according
to the states population.
 The Upper House (The Senate)
each state would have two members.
The Three-Fifths Compromise
 Should slaves count toward a states
 Why would they want to count the slaves?
 Larger representation in the House of
 The North Objected based on the fact that
the Slaves were treated as property.
 Eventually it was decided that each slave
would count as 3/5 of a person for both
Taxation and Representation.
Bill of Rights
 George Mason of Virginia
proposed that a bill of rights be
added to the constitution. It
was to ensure that the new
government did not limit
peoples rights.
Amendment Process
 The AoC had required uniramous approval to
Amend. They had decided that to amend the
new constitution a 9/13 vote would be
 Therefore when 9/13 states approved the
Constitution the United States would come
into existence.
The Roots of the Constitution
 The U.S. Constitution was the first document of its kind. However it
had many ideas and theories that had been talked, and written about for
many, many years dating back to Ancient Greece.
 Ancient Greece talked about democracy
 Ancient Rome practiced a republic
 Magna Carta (1215) limited powers of kings
 English Bill of Rights (1689)
 Englightenment Ideas.
 John Locke, Baron de Montesquieu.
 Montesquie wrote The Spirit of Laws this book outlined the separation of powers in
government. IMPORTANT*****
Shared Powers
 The Constitution created a federal system of government and divided
powers between the Federal government, and the States.
 Shared Powers
 Federalism: sharing of power between the federal and state governments.
 The Federal government could;
 Tax, trade, control money, raise an army, declare war, pass laws.
 However the states could…
 Pass laws and regular trade inside their borders, establish local governments,
schools, and anything else that effected the welfare of their citizens.
 Both Federal and State governments could tax and build roads.
The Constitution
 The constitution was to be;
 “The Supreme Law of
The Land”
 The final and supreme authority.
Organization of Government
 Following the ideas set forth by
Montesquieu they decided to separate
the powers of government.
 The Framers established three parts of
the Federal Government.
 Legislative
 Executive
 Judicial
 Hand out Unit III.5 Study Guide (Due
when we take exam)
Three Branches of Government Project
 You will create groups of three, and be assigned a
branch of government by me.
You will need to include at least 15 facts about
your branch of government.
Your poster board should be cut to represent your
branch of government.
SEVERAL pictures should be on your poster
will give you a Grade at the end of the period.
You must also describe TWO powers you have
over each of the other two branches.
Legislative Branch
 Article I of the Constitution.
 Lawmaking branch of the government.
 Composed of the House of Representatives and
the Senate.
 House is proportional to the population of each state.
 The Senate has 2 senators from each state.
 The Congress can
 Collect taxes, make money, regulate trade, declare war,
raise and support an army.
Executive Branch
 They didn’t want a super strong leader..
 Memories of a Tyrant King
 They did know that they needed some
form of strong government from their
fail AoC.
 Article II of the Constitution set
up the Executive Branch.
 Headed by a President
 Responsibilities include carrying out the
nations laws and policies, serving as
commander in chief of the armed forces,
and conducting relations with foreign
Judicial Branch
 Article III of the U.S.
 Deals with the court system of the
United States.
 The us Supreme Court and the
Federal Courts deal with laws passed
by Congress and disputes between
Checks and Balances
 By splitting the power of the government into three branches each
branch has roles and powers that check the other branches.
 Example:
 Both the House and Senate must approve for something to become a
law. (Legislative)
 A president (executive) may veto (cancel) a law passed by the
 The Congress can OVERRIDE the president.
 Another Example
 The President picks the members of the supreme court…
 HOWEVER the Senate must approve the appointments.
Ratifying the Constitution
 Before the Constitution could go into effect
9/13 states needed to Ratify (approve) it.
 Supporters of the Constitution were called
 George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James
Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay were
Federalists. (All well known important
 Those who opposed ratification of the
Constitution were called Anti-federalists.
 Their main argument was that the Constitution
took away the rights they had fought to win
from Britain.
Bill of Rights… Again.
 One of the biggest concerns of the
Constitutions is that it lacked a
Bill of Rights.
 Several states announced that they
would not ratify the Constitution
without a bill of rights. Why?
“We have struggled for liberty and made costly
sacrifices… and there are still many among us who
value liberty too much to relinquish… the rights of
man for the dignity of government.”
 To protect individual freedoms.
 In 1790 the U.S. Constitution
was ratified.
 1791 Bill of Rights was added to
the Constitution.
The Bill of Rights Amendments 1-10
Guarantees freedom of religion, speech, assembly, and press, and the
right of people to petition the government.
Protects the rights of states to maintain a militia and of citizens to
bear arms.
Restricts quartering of troops in private homes.
Protects against “unreasonable searches and seizures”
Assures the right not to be deprived of “life, liberty, or property,
without due process of law.
Guarantees the right to a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury.
7. Assures the right to a jury trial in cases involving the common law (the law
established by previous court decisions.
8. Protects against excessive bail, or cruel and unusual punishment.
9. Provides that people’s rights are not restricted to those specified in the first eight
10. Restates the constitutions principle of federalism by providing that powers not
granted to the national government nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the
states and to the people.
The Constitution
 These goals guided the Framers as they created the
 To Form a more perfect Union
 To establish justice
 To insure domestic tranquility
 To provide for the Common Defense
 To Promote general Welfare
 To secure the Blessings of Liberty.
Major Principles of the Constitution
Popular sovereignty
People are the source of the government’s power.
People elect their political representatives.
Limited Government
The Constitution limits the actions of government by
specifically listing powers it does and does not have.
In this government system, power is divide between national
and state governments.
Separation of Powers
Each of the three branches of government has its own
Checks and Balances
Each branch of government holds some control over the other
two branches
Individual Rights
Basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the
Bill of Rights.
Enumerated Powers
• Regulate Trade
• Coin money
• Provide an army and navy.
•Conduct foreign affairs.
•Set up federal courts.
Concurrent Powers
• Enforce the laws
•Establish Courts
•Collect Taxes
• Borrow Money
• Provide for the General
Reserved Powers
• Regulate trade within
the state.
•Establish local
government systems.
•Conduct Elections
•Establish public school
Vocabulary Words Unit IV (20pts)
11. Thomas Jefferson
12. New York
13. Alexander Hamilton
14. Aaron Burr
15.Louisiana Territory
Judicial review
Front of Card
President Washington
17. Eli Whitney
18. Industrial
19. Disarmament
20. Erie Canal
Back of Card
Definition: This is where
you write the definition of the
The First
 April 6, 1789 George
Washington was unanimously
elected president by the
Electoral College.
 President Washington was
57 years old when he became
president in the nations capital
(It was New York back
 April 30 1789, George
Washington was sworn in as the
first president under the new
Constitution. John Adams
was the vice president.
Setting up the Nation
 The first couple years President
Washington and the Congress were very
careful about what they did.
 Everything they did set a precedent, for
the future generations.
 The Congress set up three departments
in the executive branch.
 State Department (handled relations with
other nations)
 Treasury Department (deal with financial
 War Department (deal with the nations
Judicial System
 Debates raged whether there should
be only Federal Courts, or State
courts as well.
 A compromise was met with the
Judiciary Act of 1789.
 13 District Federal Courts which
had the power to reverse the state
courts decisions.
The Bill of Rights
 The bill of rights limits the powers
of government. Its purpose is to
protect the rights of individual
liberty, such as freedom of speech,
and rights of persons accused of
crimes, including trial by jury.
 The first 10 amendments to the
constitution are known as the Bill
of Rights.
A National Bank?
 Alexander Hamilton was the
Secretary of the Treasury.
 American needed to raise money, as
well as create new jobs and businesses.
One way they did this was by creating a
Tariff (taxes on imported goods)
 This helped to encourage people to
make products in America, as well as to
buy American products.
 Hamilton also began to impose a series
of Taxes on a variety of items (including
 In the constitution does it say that
Bank can
create a
 Does it say that they can’t create a
 If the constitution doesn't say you
can’t do something, do you think
you should be able to do it?
 The First National Bank
 Hamilton’s new taxes led to one of the strongest oppositions the new
government had seen.
Farmers decided that they would not pay taxes on Whiskey, they
remained peaceful until the tax collectors came. Then they attacked
these collectors.
It became known as the Whiskey Rebellion.
Washington ordered the rebellion crushed. Just by having an army
marching towards them the rebellion stopped.
Why did he do this?
 He had no problem with people opposing or wanting to change the
government. However they needed to do so through
CONSTITUTIONAL means. He set the precedent that the government
would use force when necessary to maintain the social order.
 Whiskey Rebellion Homework
Early Challenges to the new Government
 The people in America still wanted
to expand their territories west over
the Moving
 The problem with that was that
Indians were still living there, and
did not want to lose any more land.
 This led to conflicts between White
Settlers, and the Native Population.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
 One of the major clashes between
settlers and Native Americans was at
the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
 Washington sent an army that
completely wiped out the Indians in
the Ohio region.
 The Indians were forced to sign a
treaty and surrender most of their
land in that area.
 Battle of Fallen Timbers Homework
Declaration of Neutrality
 France had followed the American’s and had
their own revolution. Their revolution was
very bloody and involved many executions
by Guillotine.
 France and Britain went to war in 1793
(again) and many American’s wanted to
help France.
 Why?
 Because they helped us win our
 April 22 Washington issued a
Proclamation of Neutrality. It
prohibited American citizens from fighting
in the French war, and banned all British
and French warships from any American
Close to War
 The British began to attack
American ships that were trading
with France.
 This brought America close to
another war with Britain.
 Jay’s Treaty the British agreed to
withdraw from American soil and
to pay damages for the American
ships they sunk.
 They did this so that they
could focus on their war with
France and not have to fight
against America to.
Political Parties
 By the 1790s two distinct political parties
 What are the two major political parties
 Republican and Democrat
 The first two political parties were the
Federalists and the Republicans
(Democratic Republicans)
• Republicans
(Democratic People who supported the
• Leader was Madison.
 Believed in a strong central
• They wanted to limit
federal government.
governments powers.
 “Implied Powers”
• “Expressed Powers”
 Federalists
 Another difference existed between the Federalist and the
Republicans. They viewed the constitution in different ways.
Implied vs. Expressed Powers
They believed in Implied
powers. That is powers that
are not expressly forbidden
in the constitution are
allowed to be used. (Bank,
taxes, regulate trade etc)
They also believed in implied powers,
however they thought that these were
only powers that should be used when
“Absolutely necessary”. Mainly relied
on “Expressed Powers”
Federalist believed that the ordinary
person should not become too
involved in(Representation)
They thought public office should only
be held by educated men of property,
because ordinary people would be
swayed too easily.
They feared a strong central government that
was controlled by a few people.
They thought that liberty would only be safe
if ordinary people participated in
Leader: Alexander
Leader:Thomas Jefferson
Differences between the First
Political Parties
• Favored:
•Rule by the people
• Rule by the wealthy class •Strong state governments
•Strong federal government •Emphasis on agriculture
•Emphasis on
•Strict interpretation of
the Constitution.
•Loose interpretation of the •French Alliance
constitution (implied
•State banks
•Free Trade.
•British alliance
•Expressed Powers
•National bank
•Protective tariffs
•Implied Powers
Election of 1796
 A New President was elected.
John Adams.
 John Adams became President
 Jefferson became vice president
 In this time the winner
became President, and the
one with the second most
votes became Vice President.
John Adams problems
 Problems with France
 Almost went to war
 Alien and Sedition Acts
 People began to become scared of
Aliens (foreigners) in their country.
 Why?
 If a French person was living in
America, what would they do if
America went to war with France?
The Republicans take Power
 The Election of 1800 marked
the Republicans first term in
 Jefferson (republican) ran against
Adams (federalist, incumbent).
 Jefferson and Adams TIED in
electoral votes.
 When there is a TIE the House of
Reps. Will vote for the new
 Eventually Jefferson won and
became president. Aaron
Burr became vice president.
The Jefferson Era
 Jefferson had different views than
those who preceded him.
 He thought that the strength of the
Nation lay with the individual
farmers (most people were still
 His thinking was that if each farmer
owned their own land, then they
would fight to keep it if need be.
 What do you think about this?
Marbury vs. Madison
 A supreme court case that established
Judicial Review.
 Judicial Review gave the supreme
 Judicial Review allowed the courts to
deem the laws passed by congress or
if they went against the constitution.
 Marbury v. Madison supreme
court case handout.
The Expanding Nation
 American Farmers continually were
moving west and setting up new
 They had their farms along rivers…
 To transport their goods easier.
 Why else?
 The goods were transported along the
rivers to New Orleans (Port City),
where they were shipped to the east
The Louisiana Purchase
 President Jefferson authorized
James Monroe to negotiate for the
purchase of land from France.
 The Louisiana Purchase
included all territory around
Louisiana. It cost 15million.
 Jefferson loved the idea of this
purchase, but wasn’t sure if it
was legal (constitutionally).
 He decided that since the
government could make treaties,
they could also by law, purchase
land. Congress approved of the land
purchase, and the size of America
Lewis and Clark Documentary
Lewis and Clark
 Even before the Louisiana
Purchase, Lewis and Clark got
congress to sponsor their trip
west of the Mississippi.
 Thomas Jefferson was the man
responsible for appointing
Lewis and Clark.
Their Expedition
 They left St. Louis in 1804 and
worked their way to the Missouri
River (upstream).
 Along their journey they met a young
Indian woman Sacagawea, who was
16 and pregnant.
 It took 18 months and 4000 miles,
and Lewis and Clark had reached the
Pacific Ocean.
What they Found
 Lewis and Clark collected
information on people, plants,
animals, and the geography of the
 Most importantly it sparked
peoples interest in moving west even
 Sacagawea Hand-Out
Secession and a Duel
 Some Federalist wanted to Secede
(withdraw) from the Union.
 Alexander Hamilton stopped Aaron
Burrs plan to help this become a
 Burr challenged Hamilton to a
 A duel is an engagement in combat between two individuals.
 Before pistols people used swords.
 What would people use today?
The Duel
 July 1804 Hamilton and Burr
went to duel with pistols.
 Hamilton said he would not shoot
at Burr.
 Burr didn’t care and shot
Hamilton anyway.
 Hamilton died the next day and
Burr ran away to avoid arrest.
Two-Term Precedent
 Following Washington’s precedent
Jefferson informed people that he
would not run for a third term in
 The next president also a republican,
was James Madison, Thomas
Jefferson’s former Sec. of State.
 Duels have been around since the beginning of time. Whether it is
someone fighting for their own honor, the protection of another, or
for theirDay
lives.Duel Assignment (15pts)
 Swordfights, boxing matches, gun fights, arm wrestling matches
are all types of duels.
 What are modern day duels?
 How are duel request issued? (How does someone challenge you to a
 Is there still a sense of “honor” in most modern day duels?
 Over the course of the next one hundred years how do you think
duels will evolve? In the year 2200 how do you think people will
“settle” their differences?
 Write ONE page response answering the above questions.
Daily Agenda
Warm up Activity:
1. Why was Sacagawea so important to
helping Lewis and Clark move west?
2. Who appointed Lewis and Clark to
explore the west?
3. OCSR: Who introduced the Virginia
4. Define: Sacagawea, Sectionalism.
 If you were an Indian, how
would you feel when white
people just moved into your
land, cut down trees, and built
cities? How would you react.
 SS.8.A.3.15: Examine this time period
(1764-1815) from the perspective of
historically under-representaed groups.
Madison and a time of War
 When Madison took office America
was at the brink of many wars.
 France and Britain had stopped trade
with America.
 Pirates, as well as Royal ships were
taking American ships and selling their
 America was close to going to war
with Britain, France, and Indians.
War Hawks
 War Hawks were members of
congress who wanted Madison to be
more aggressive against these threats.
 Hunger for land heightened their
war fever. (imperialism)
The War of 1812
 By 1812 Madison had concluded that
war with Britain was inevitable.
 “The spectacle of injuries and indignities
which have been heaped on our country”
 Americans were NOT prepared for
war. Their army only had 7,000
trained soldiers. The people who
fought in the American Revolution
were too old to fight now, so they had
essentially no experienced soldiers..
The War of 1812
 American forces moved from Detroit to
They were scared that they would be
defeated by Tecumseh (Indians allied
with the British). They pulled back and
allowed British troops to take Detroit.
The Americans decided they needed to
take control of Lake Erie.
On September 10th, 1813 American ships
under the command of Oliver Hazard
Perry defeated British ships on Lake
The War of 1812 Homework
The Indian Alliance Crumbling
 The Indian leader Tecumseh died in
a battle against the Americans.
 March 1814 Andrew Jackson
attacked and defeated the
Creek Indians at the Battle of
Horseshoe Bend.
 The death of Tecumseh and the
defeat of the Creek Indians
destroyed any chance of an Indian
alliance to help the British.
British Offensive
 Although the British had suffered
defeats both on land, and at Sea they
rebounded and were able to fight
 They came back stronger because their
war with France finally ended. (They
 This means they could consolidate their
troops in N. America.
 August 1814 they sailed into
Chesapeake bay, marched into
Washington DC and burnt and
destroyed everything.
The War Ends
 British troops did not hold
Washington, instead they march
towards Baltimore.
Baltimore was ready and halted
the British advances.
The British began to lose many
troops and realized (again) that
war with America was too costly.
The Treaty of Ghent was the
peace agreement between
America and Britain.
This was the only time
America was ever invaded by
a foreign country.
 During the British assault on Baltimore an attorney named Francis
Scott Key watched as bombs burst over the city. By Dawn he was
able to see that the Flag still stood tall. He wrote the Star-Spangled
banner, and in 1931 (more than 100 years later) congress declared that
song to be the National Anthem.
The Star-Spangled Banner
 “O! say can you see by the dawn's early light,
What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming,
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight,
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming.
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air,
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there;
O! say does that star-spangled banner yet wave,
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?”
The rest of the poem
On the shore, dimly seen through the mists of the deep,
Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes,
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep,
As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses?
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam,
In full glory reflected now shines in the stream:
'Tis the star-spangled banner, O! long may it wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
And where is that band who so vauntingly swore
That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion,
A home and a country should leave us no more!
Their blood has washed out their foul footsteps' pollution.
No refuge could save the hireling and slave
From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave:
And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave.
O! thus be it ever, when freemen shall stand
Between their loved home and the war's desolation!
Blest with victory and peace, may the heav'n rescued land
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a
Then conquer we must, when our cause it is just,
And this be our motto: "In God is our trust."
And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave!
The Final Battle of 1812 and
the rise of a new hero.
 There were no cell phones, no satellite
phones, and no 24/7 news center.
 When the treaty was signed and the war was
officially over the majority of soldiers on
both sides, didn’t know about it.
 In December 1814 the bloodiest battle of
the war occurred. The Battle of New
 Andrew Jackson the leader of American
forces led them to a decisive victory and
became a hero.
 He would eventually become president in
Legacy of the War of 1812
 Americans first full fledged war as a
nation. (VICTORY)
 They defeated an established world
power in Britain.
 Federalist party lost a lot of power and
prestige to the Republicans.
 Nationalism began to rise in America.
(Pride in ones country)
 Nations around the world
respected America.
The Evolution of the Flag
 In 1795 Kentucky and Vermont
joined the Union.
 Two more Stars and two more
stripes were added to the flag.
 Congress decided that adding
stripes would make the flag look
weird (as more states joined.)
 They fixed the number of stripes at
13, and decided to add a new star
for each new state.
The Growth of a Nation
 America was growing and expanding
VERY quickly.
 Industry, technology, and population
were all growing at speeds unheard
of before. Why?
 A lot of land to spread, good soil,
brilliant scientists.
 This is the beginning of the Industrial
Industrial Revolution
 The Industrial Revolution
began in America around 1800.
 It began in the northern states,
where the soil was poor for farming.
 Why is that important?
 They were eager to leave their farm jobs
in order to find new work.
 There were also a lot of rivers, they used
a lot of waterpower in early factories.
 Why was this land poor for farming?
Industrial Revolution
 America also provided opportunity
for people to open and prosper in
business and factories.
 Capitalism, and Free
Enterprise were two important
causes of the Industrial revolution.
Inventions change the world
 Technology began to quickly change the way
things were done. Without these new
inventions an Industrial Revolution would
not have occurred.
 Eli Whitney: Eli Whitney invented two
very important things.
 Cotton Gin: A machine that quickly and
efficiently removed seeds from cotton fiber.
It worked as fast as 50 people who worked by
 Interchangeable Parts: Before this if a
machine broke, it broke. There was no
switching of parts. These are identical
machine parts that can be quickly put
together to make a complete product.
(spokes, sprockets, etc.)
 Eli Whitney Homework
Growth of Cities
 Even with new technologies and
factories booming a majority (65%) of
the Americans were still farmers.
 With the growth of factories, came
the growth of cities.
 Cities on rivers were also more
developed than those that weren't.
 People began to move to the cities for
economic opportunities. (Urbanization)
to develop
too quickly during the industrial
revolution, the infrastructure could not keep up.
•Buildings were made of wood and brick.
•Streets and sidewalks were unpaved.
•Animals roamed freely.
•No sewer systems to carry waste (your poop)
•HIGH danger of diseases such as Cholera and Yellow Fever.
•Fires were also very common and dangerous.
•Despite that people still wanted to live in cities
because of:
•A steady paycheck
•Libraries, museums, shops.
A lot of children were forced to work
for less pay than adults.
They were used because they were
smaller. Their small hands could reach
inside of broken or jammed machines to
fix/take things out.
This led to a lot of children losing limbs
and fingers.
Children also worked in coal mines and
got very sick.
They worked many hours and many
worked instead of getting an education.
Moving West
 In 1790 Americas first census
showed that there were nearly
4,000,000 people living in
 Most of these people lived EAST of
the Appalachian Mountains.
 In 1820 just 30 years after the first
Census there were more than
10,000,000 people living in
America. With more than
2,000,000 living West of the
Appalachian Mountains.
Westward Settlement
(Manifest Destiny)
 People moved westward in waves.
 In the 1790s people moved west and
this led to the creation of four new
 Vermont, Kentucky, Tennessee, and
 Between 1816 and 1821 Five new
states were added
 Indiana, Illinois, Mississippi, Alabama,
Life in the West
 People in the West didn’t have the
same luxuries and conveniences of
their Eastern counter parts.
 They faced hard times moving west,
settling down, and surviving.
 Whatever life they made for
themselves they earned.
 Americans began to feel attached to
the region which they lived.
 West vs East
 North vs South
 They differed on issues such as slavery,
banking, taxes, and military.
Trail of Tears
 The Trail of Tears was a forced
relocation of Native Americans.
 It effected Cherokee, Creek,
Seminole, and Choctaw Indians.
They were moved from their homes
to present day Oklahoma.
 Trail of Tears Homework
The Missouri Compromise
 As new states were added to the
Union the question came up…
Should they have slaves, or not?
 Missouri would be added as a
slave state, Maine would be added
as a Free State.
 The rest of the Louisiana
territory would be free states.
 Why are people worried about
slave states, and free states?
 The south was reliant on their
slaves for their labor.
 The north was becoming
increasingly anti-slavery.
 Abolitionist (people who wanted to end
Tensions between
North and South
1. Suffrage
2. Secede
3. Manifest Destiny
4. Californios
5. Vigilantes
6. Telegraph
7. Morse Code
8. Famine
9. Slave Codes
10. Temperance
11. Abolitionists
13. Andrew Jackson
14.John Quincy Adams
15.Davy Crockett
Brigham Young
John Deere
The Underground railroad
Susan B. Anthony
If you use the textbook
definition you will
receive 50% of the
points. Define the words
in your own way.
Word Poster = 10pts
Definition: This is where you
write the definition of the word.
Jacksonian Democracy
 In the Election of 1824 Jackson received
the largest number of popular votes,
however NO CANDIDATE received a
majority of electoral votes.
 Under the terms of the Constitution
when no candidate receives more than ½
the electoral vote the House of
Representatives select the president.
 Henry Clay swayed the House into
selecting John Quincy Adams as
President, and Clay became the secretary
of state.
 Jackson’s followers accused these two
men of stealing the presidency.
The Election of 1828
 Jackson won the presidency in a
 Jackson (Democratic Republican
 John Quincy Adams (National
Republican) 43.6%
 John Q. Adams and his father John
Adams, both only served ONE
Andrew Jackson
 Andrew Jackson was everything that
most American’s admired.
 A patriot, self made man, and a war
 Normal people felt a connection to
Jackson unlike any other president as
Jackson seemed like a “normal guy”
 Small farmers, craft workers, and
frontiersmen especially loved Jackson.
 Andrew Jackson Handout
Increase in Suffrage (voting)
 Under Jackson voting laws
loosened (it used to be only white
land owning men could vote)
 By the mid 1820’s voting had
spread to more males;
sharecroppers, factory workers,
and many others.
 In the 1840’s more than 80% of
white males were voting in
president elections.
Seneca Falls Convention
& Declaration of
 A women’s rights convention held
in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848.
 Viewed by some as a revolutionary
beginning in the struggle for
women’s rights.
 Declaration of Sentiments
 The Foundational document in the
American woman’s suffrage
 Written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
and was based on the form of the
Declaration of Independence.
Spoil’s System
 Under Jackson a new system for
government jobs began to take shape
the Spoil’s system (good ol’ boy).
 Under this system people got their
jobs based upon who they knew, not
what they knew.
Southern Protest
 Southern States began to argue that
they had to right to nullify or
cancel a federal law that they felt
was against states interest.
 Why would this be a bad thing?
 Some southerners wanted to
secede or break away from the
United States.
Jackson’s Stand
 “Our federal union… must be
 Jackson (President)
 “The Union—to our liberty, most
 Calhoun. (Vice President)
 Calhoun soon resigned the vice
presidency and became a senator.
 Their big disagreement was over
State vs. Federal powers.
 Who do you think should hold the
most power, states or federal
The Nullification Crisis
 Southern States DECLARED that they would not pay taxes passed by the
Federal Government.
 In 1833 Under Jackson’s urging Congress passed the Force Bill which
allowed the president to use the Military to enforce acts of congress.
 What does this mean?
 Eventually the Southern States backed down, however they realized that the
U.S. Govt would not allow a state to secede without a fight.
 What is coming?
Indian Removal Act
 Many Americans living on the western
frontier wanted the Indians removed
further to the west in order to take
their land, for more farms.
 The main Indian Tribes were the
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, chickasaw,
and Choctaw.
 Jackson supported the peoples wishes
to move the Indians.
 In 1830 congress passed the Removal
The Trail of Tears
 In 1835 the federal government persuaded
a few Cherokee to sign a treaty giving up
their peoples land. However most of the
17,000 Cherokee REFUSED to honor the
 Under General Winfield Scott with an army
of 7,000 troops came to remove the
 “Chiefs, head men, and warriors, Will you
then, by resistance, compel us to resort to
 The Cherokee knew that fighting would
only lead to their destruction and the long
march west began.
 Why would the Cherokee lose?
 Many Indian troops did not leave
quietly. In 1835 the Seminole joined
forces with a group of Runaway slaves
and attacked settlements along the
Florida Coast.
 They used Guerilla Tactics.
 The Seminole caused so much
destruction that eventually some of
them were allowed to stay on their own
 The Jackson Era Worksheet
The Election of 1832
 Jackson decided NOT to run for a
third term (following precedent) and
Martin Van Buren was elected
 He was a direct successor and was
fully supported by Jackson.
 Soon after Van Buren was elected the
country went into a depression.
 Hundreds of Thousands lost jobs,
land values sunk, and thousands of
businesses closed.
 Does this sound familiar? When were
some other Depressions?
Manifest Destiny
 What was Manifest Destiny?
 Claim’s over land in the Oregon
Country were disputed. Russia,
England, Spain, and America all had
claimed the land as their own.
 In the early 1840’s “Oregon Fever”
spread through the Mississippi
 Tens of thousands of people began
to move west. This was called
 How is emigration different from
The Oregon Trail
 The trail was over 2,000 miles long.
 They made the trip in Canvas
covered Wagons.
 America’s Manifest Destiny began to
spread and people began to believe
that they should possess all land on
the Continent.
 “Manifest Destiny to overspread and to
possess the whole of the continent which
Providence has given us.”
Government Opinion on Manifest Destiny
 Filled with the spirit of Manifest
Destiny President Polk was
determined to make Oregon part of
the United States.
 A compromise was made with Britain
in which a border was established
between American Soil and British Soil
at latitude 49.
Independence for Texas
 Even though Manifest Destiny was
the main focus of Americans during
this time. There were many other
events occurring throughout the
 One of these large events was the
acquisition of Texas as a state.
Davy Crockett
 Davy Crockett was a man known
for his frontier skills, sense of
humor, and shrewd common sense
that he often displayed in politics.
 Crockett wanted to help the Texans
win their independence from
 By 1830 Americans in Texas far
outnumbered the Mexicans.
 Manifest Destiny Handout
(workbook activity 12)
Tensions Grow
 Mexican officials began to see that
they were becoming out numbered.
 They reacted by stopping
immigration from the United States,
 as well as harshly taxing any trade
with America.
 This angered the Americans living in
Texas, as they relied on trading with
the United States,
 and wanted their friends and family
to move to Texas with them.
Remember the Alamo
 A army led by Santa Anna reached a small
Texan force that was barricaded inside a
nearby mission called the Alamo.
They only had 180 soldiers to fight Santa
Ana’s several thousand.
The Texans were led by Davy Crockett and a
few other notable men. Jim Bowie, William
B. Travis.
For 12 Days the defenders of the Alamo kept
Santa Anna’s army at bay with rifle fire.
Nearly everyone was killed including Davy
Remember the Alamo Homework
Texas Declares its Independence
 “The people of Texas, in solemn convention assembled, appealing to a
candid world for the necessities of our condition, do hereby resolve
and declare that our political connection with the Mexican nation
has forever ended; and that the people of Texas do now constitute a
free, sovereign, and independent republic…”
 March 2, 1836.
Texas Path to Statehood
 1836 Andrew Jackson denied Texas application to become a state.
 Didn’t want to upset the balance of slave and free states.
 President Van Buren also denied Texas’ application.
 Didn’t want to upset the balance of slave and free states.
 John Tyler (President in 1841) wanted to let Texas become a state,
however the senate did not approve.
 In 1845 Texas finally became a state. (Manifest Destiny)
 After Mexico gained its independence
from Spain in 1821 California became a
state in the new Mexican Nation.
 Manifest Destiny though eventually
brought California into the Americans
 In the 1840’s Mexican officials welcomed
American settlers.
 Why would they want to add California to
the nation?
 Defended by two ocean borders, not a
foreign nation.
War with Mexico
 Mexico refused to sell California and
New Mexico to America (under
president Polk)
 Polk wanted to go to war with
Mexico, however he wanted them to
take military action first.
 On May 11th 1846 after a small
conflict, Polk told congress that
Mexico had “invaded our territory and
shed American blood upon American
 Congress passed a declaration of war
against Mexico.
Polk’s War Plan
 Polk had a three part plan.
 1. The American Troops would drive
Mexican forces out of the disputed border
region in Texas and make the border
 2. The U.S would seize New Mexico and
 3. The U.S. would take (capture) Mexico
City the capital of Mexico.
Plan in Action
 In 1846 New Mexico was captured
by Americas.
 In July 1846 California was taken
over by America.
 In 1847 Polk’s army reached the
outskirts of Mexico City, they
captured Mexico City and the
Mexican Government Surrendered.
The Peace Treaty
 The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
was signed in February 1848.
 In this treaty Mexico gave up all claims to
Texas and agreed to the Rio Grande as
the border between Texas and Mexico.
 It also gave its provinces of California and
New Mexico to the United States for
 Ten years later America paid Mexico another
$10million for the Gadsen Purchase a
strip of land along the southern edge of
Arizona and New Mexico.
California ______ Rush 1849
 What major event happened in 1849
that led to a population surge in
 Gold Rush
 These people were called forty-
 Boomtowns were established
 These were towns that quickly came
to be almost overnight.
Mormons in Utah
 Mormons or the Church of
Latter-day Saints went to Utah to
fulfill their vision of the godly life.
 Joseph Smith founded the
Mormon Church in 1830 in New
York State.
 In 1844 Brigham Young took
over as head of the Mormons,
they moved near the Great Salt
Lake in present day Utah.
 Brigham Young Handout
Social Reform
 In the early 1800’s a wave of
religious fervor known as the
Second Great Awakening stirred
the nation. This led to people
becoming eager to change their lives
for the better.
 There was also a war against alcohol.
 People blamed Alcohol for poverty
and a temperance movement
began. (Drinking little to no
Education Reform
 In the early 1800’s only New England
provided free elementary education.
 This meant in other areas people had to
pay for their children to go to school.
Could poor people pay for their children
to go to school?
 By the 1850’s most people supported
the idea that public education should be
free and supported by taxes.
 Men studied math, science, history
 Women studied music or needlework.
 They also stayed in school for less time
than their male counterparts. Women
were still thought to be only wives and
College Boom
 During this time Dozens of new
colleges and Universities were
created. MOST admitted only men.
 Oberline College of Ohio,
founded in 1833, admitted men,
women, and African Americans to
their school.
 Mount Holyoke was the first
permanent women’s college.
 Ashmun Institute became the
first African American College. It
was later renamed Lincoln
The differences between the North and South.
• Lots of power driven machinery. Replaced
workers with machines.
• Technology changed the way they worked,
traveled, and communicated.
• Highly Industrialized.
• Strong transportation system. Railroads, boats
(Clipper Ships), tons of railroads.
• Improved communication included the
telegraph and Morse Code.
• Factories were an important part of life in the
• Trade Unions, Strikes, and Child Labor were
all aspects of Northern Life.
• Slavery was nonexistant in the northern States
however there was still Racial Prejudice.
• Large number of Immigrants (Irish was the
largest group)
• The Southern States were ruled by Cotton,
Plantations, and Slave owners.
•The Upper South (Maryland, Virginia, North
• The Deep South (Georgia, South Carolina,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas.)
• The South had a thriving Economy, and slaves
were a vital part of this economy.
• The South had very few factories compared to
the North, their main economy was tied up in
• the South had a lower population than the
• The Southern Railroad were susbstantially less
developed than the Norths.
• Most Southerners worked/lived in Small
Farms and a few owned Plantations filled with
 What is an abolitionists?
 Reformers who worked to
abolish, or end slavery.
 By the early 1800’s northern
states had ended slavery.
 Reformers realized that their
gradual approach to ending
slavery was not working. Slave
numbers were actually
 Soon under some new
leadership the abolitionist
movement became a pressing
social issue.
Abolitionist Leaders
 William Lloyd Garrison: Worked
for a newspaper in Baltimore.
Eventually he founded his own
newspaper The Liberator.
 The Grimke Sisters: Among the
first women to speak out against
slavery. They were from a rich slave
holding family.
 Frederick Douglas: He is the most
widely known African American
abolitionist. He escaped from Slavery.
He was a powerful speaker and for 16
years was the editor of an antislavery
newspaper called the North Star.
The Underground Railroad
 The Underground Railroad was a series of
escape routes from the South to the
 They mostly ran by foot at night towards
the north star.
 During the day they rested at “stations”
 Barns, attics, church basements, or
anywhere people would give them shelter.
 In the later phases of the underground
railroad they began to head north on
wagons, some of which had secret
 The Underground
Railroad/Abolitionist Homework
Unit 13.6 Vocabulary
2. Fugitive
3. Secede
4. Compromise of 1850
5. Martyr
6. Blockade
7. Rebels
8. Yankees
9. Emancipate
10. Habeas Corpus
11. Draft
12. Amnesty
Abraham Lincoln
Jefferson Davis
Robert E. Lee
Harriet Tubman
Dorothea Dix
Ulysses S. Grant
Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
If you use the textbook
definition you will receive
50% of the points. Define
the words in your own way.
Vocabulary Poster = 10pts
Front of Paper
Back of Paper
Definition: This is where you
write the definition of the word.
Slavery and the West
 One of the main causes of the
civil war was slavery, and it
was still a problem in
admitting states to the union
prior to the Civil War.
 Slaveholding Missouri
petitioned to join the Union
in 1819.
During this time were more slaves, imported
(brought to America) or born, in the United
Missouri Compromise
 John Quincy Adams (Secretary of
State) described the arguments
that followed as “a mere
preamble—a title-page to a great
tragic volume”
 Preamble to what?
 Missouri had about 50,000 white
settlers and 10,000 slaves. Its
constitution allowed for slavery.
Missouri Compromise Cont…
 There was one big problem in
allowing Missouri to join the union.
There were already 11 free states, and
11 slave states.
 This meant that the senate was
perfectly balanced with 22 pro slavery
senators and 22 anti slavery senators.
Adding another slave or free state
would tip the balance of power in
Missouri Compromise
 The problem of pro or anti
slavery also created a feeling
of sectionalism or a loyalty
to ones particular region of
the country. The south felt as
if the north was trying to
impose their views upon
Missouri Compromise
 Henry Clay came up with an
idea that would save the balance
of power in the Union.
 The plan was to admit Missouri
as a slave state, and at the same
time admit Maine as a free
 Maine used to be a part of
Massachusetts, but now wanted to
become their own independent
 This compromise allowed for
the number of slave states to be
at 12, as well as free states at 12.
New Western Lands
 With the Missouri Compromise
finished in the 1820’s the issue of
slavery was kept in the
background for nearly 20 years.
 However when new states from
the West (Texas, New Mexico,
California) all tried to join the
Union the debate started all over
 Essentially all the Missouri
Compromise did was delay the
argument of slave states vs. free
Talk of Secession Soon there were 15 free and 15
slave states.
 A new idea had come about that
states could vote or decide for
themselves whether to be
admitted as a free or slave state.
 In 1850 California was poised to
enter the Union as a FREE state.
 This scared the south as New
Mexico, Oregon, and Utah were
about to become free states as
 Why would this scare the south?
Talk of Secession
 As the south began to see
themselves becoming out
numbered to free states people
began to talk of Seceding (or
leaving the union (USA)).
 This left the door open for
another compromise, or a way to
make all sides happy, or at least
all sides able to stay part of the
same country.
 In January 1850 Henry Clay
proposed a multi-part plan to
settle the issues of slavery and
 California would be added as a free
New Mexico would have NO
restrictions on slavery.
New Mexico-Texas border dispute
would be settled in New Mexico’s
The SLAVE TRADE, not slavery
would be abolished in Washington
There would be a stronger fugitive
slave law put in place.
Compromise of 1850 Handout.
Opposition to The Compromise of
 Henry Clay’s plan was debated for
several months in congress.
 One of the most prominent
opposition to the bill was John C.
 Calhoun believed that the only
way to save the Union was to
Protect Slavery.
 What state do you think Calhoun was
 Calhoun warned congress that if
they admitted California was a free
state, then the South would have no
choice but to leave the Union.
Finally a Compromise?
 With the help of new President
Millard Fillmore (president Taylor
died in office), and Stephen Douglas a
senator from Illinois a plan was devised
to pass this compromise.
 It was split into 5 smaller bills allowing
people to vote no on sections that they
would not support.
 These 5 bills taken together are known
as the Compromise of 1850.
 They were the five main points of
Henry Clay’s plan.
 President Fillmore said that these bills
would be the “final settlement”
between the north an the south. Was he
right or wrong?
Fugitive Slave Act
 As a result of The Compromise
of 1850 the U.S. enacted
harsher fugitive slave laws.
 This law required ALL citizens
to help catch runaway slaves,
anyone who helped a fugitive
slave could be fined or
 The South had hoped that this
law would help the North
recognize southern rights,
instead it made the North mad,
and hate slavery even more.
Fugitive Slave Act
 After this act was passed in 1850
Southerners stepped up their efforts to
capture runaways.
 They captured runaway slaves that had
been living free lives in the north for
 They also sometimes captured African
Americans who were never slaves, and
forced them into slavery.
Northern resistance to the Fugitive Slave Act.
 Despite harsh penalties
northerners still did not care for
 Many contributed help/money to
the Underground Railroad, and
anti slavery groups.
 Northern juries also refused to
convict those accused of breaking
the Fugitive Slave Law.
 How do you think this made the
Southern states feel?
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
 With new states wanting to join
the Union the issue of slavery
came about again.
 Kansas and Nebraska both were
technically in the “North” as set in
the Missouri Compromise,
however a new theory was
coming about….
Popular Sovereignty
 Popular Sovereignty: Allowing
people to decide.
 What were they deciding on?
 Issue of being admitted as a Slave or
Free state.
 Northerners opposed this bill as
it would allow more slave states,
and Southerners supported it.
“Bleeding Kansas”
 Kansas had about 1,500 voters living in
the state at the time.
 When the issue of whether to be a free or
slave state was voted on however, there
were over 6,000 votes cast.
 Proslavery and Antislavery forces armed
themselves, created two separate state
constitutions one allowing slaves, and
one against slavery.
 These were Americans killing Americans
over the issue of slavery.
 Violence had even spread into Congress.
 Someone walked into the Senate
chamber and beat a senator over and
over again in the head with his cane.
The Republican Party
 In 1854 antislavery Whigs and
Democrats joined forces with
Free-Soilers to form the
Republican Party.
 They vowed to rally “for the
establishment of liberty and the
overthrow of the Slave Power”
 During this time most
northerners = Republican
 Most Southerners = Democrats
The Dred Scott Decision
 Dred Scott was a slave bought by an
Army doctor in Missouri (a slave
 The Doctor moved to Illinois (a
free state) then to Wisconsin
Territory (slavery was banned
 Once the doctor died his family
moved back to Missouri (Slave
 Dred Scott sued for his freedom.
He claimed that since he had once
lived on free soil he should be free.
 Dred Scott Handout
The Dred Scott Decision
This case attracted enormous attention. It
was no long about a single slave trying to
become free, it was about Slavery in
 The Final Decision:
 Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, ruled; Dred Scott
was a slave, and as a slave he was not a citizen
and did not have the rights to bring a law suit.
 Also, by him living on free soil that did not
make him free. He was “property” and could
be moved wherever he wanted.
 He also said that The Missouri Compromise
and Popular Sovereignty were
unconstitutional, as they essentially would be
taking away property from people violating
their 4th amendment rights of “due process of
 Under this decision the U.S. Constitution
basically protected Slavery.
The Election of Abraham Lincoln?
 Lincoln was a relatively unknown
Republican. He was running against
Douglas an established Democrat
Senator. (Running for Senator)
 Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series
of debates.
 They met seven times, and the main
issue debated was of course…
 Slavery.
 Douglas main claim was that Lincoln
wanted African Americans to be
EQUAL to whites.
 Lincoln denied this but said that each
man should be able to keep what he
 Lincoln LOST the election to Douglas
but was now a well known name
throughout the country.
John Brown and Harper’s Ferry handout.
The Election of 1860
 In 1860 the Democrat party was
split in two. Northern
Democrats put up Stephen
 Southern Democrats put up John
C. Breckinridge,
 and a third Democrat John Bell
was nominated as well.
 Why would there be a problem
with a political party nominating
three people?
Lincoln’s Election
 The Republican’s nominated
Abraham Lincoln.
 Lincoln won a clear majority of
Electoral Votes. 180/303 but he
only won 40% of the popular
 He mainly won because the
Democrats had three candidates.
 Lincolns name did not even
appear on most Southern Ballots.
Lincoln Part 1 Handout
Lincoln Part 2 Handout
Southern Secession
 Lincoln and the Republicans had
promised NOT to disturb slavery
where it had already existed.
 The Southern States however did
not trust the republicans, and on
December 20th, 1860 the South
held a convention in South
Carolina and voted to Secede, or
leave the Union.
Lincoln’s Stand
 “The government shall be broken up,
unless we surrender to those we have
-Abraham Lincoln
 Do you think it is right that the
South would secede after they lost
a free and fair vote? Or do their
motives seem selfish?
 The republicans had promised not
to outlaw slavery in slave states,
only to STOP the spread of
slavery to new states.
The Confederacy
 By February 1861 Texas, Louisiana,
Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and
South Carolina had seceded and created a
new nation and Government.
 They were called The Confederate States of
America and chose Jefferson Davis, a
senator from Mississippi as their President.
 Jefferson Davis Handout.
 Drafting a new Constitution Handout.
Reactions to Secession
Northern reactions
Southern reactions
 Some abolitionist preferred
 Many Southerners
to allow the Southern
States to leave.
 MOST northerners
however believed that the
Union must be preserved
welcomed secession.
 Many were also scared of
what was to come.
 Fort Sumter was a fort on an island
guarding Charleston Harbor in
South Carolina.
 They were low on supplies, in
Confederate Territory and sent a
letter to Lincoln asking for help.
 Lincoln, not wanting to start a war
sent a letter to Governor Francis
Pickens of South Carolina.
 The letter explained that he would
be sending an unarmed expedition
with supplies to the fort, and would
not be rearming, or lending them
 Why would Lincoln do this?
 Didn’t want to start the war.
Fateful Decision
 Lincoln held true to his promise and
sent the unarmed expedition to the
 Jefferson Davis, the Confederate
President however made a decision.
 He ordered an attack on Fort Sumter
on April 12, 1861.
 Thousands of bullets were fired in
both directions but NO ONE died
on either side.
 Eventually the Northern Troops in
the Fort surrendered.
 Southern troops raised their flag
over the fort in victory.
 This led Lincoln to call for
75,000 troops to protect the
union, and thousands more
volunteered to join.
 This also led to Virginia, North
Carolina, Tennessee, and
Arkansas to secede and join the
confederacy, the Civil War had
The Two Sides: Civil War
 Once war had officially
begun several more states
left the Union and joined
the Confederacy.
 The Confederacy chose
Richmond Virginia (only
100 miles away from
Washington D.C.) as their
“Border States”
 There were still four states in
the Union which allowed
slavery. Missouri, Kentucky,
Maryland, Delaware.
 Missouri, Kentucky, and
Maryland were very close to
 Maryland was very important
as Washington D.C. was
essentially inside of it, if
Maryland seceded than the
North’s Capital would be
Walking the Line
 Lincoln had to be very careful
how he dealt with the border
states. If he was too firm they
would leave and give power to
the South.
 If he was to lenient than he would
lose his own supporters in the
 Lincoln suspended some
constitutional rights, arrested
people who supported secession,
and spoke very carefully of
West Virginia
 In 1861 a large group of
people living in Virginia
decided to REJOIN the
union and secede from the
 48 Counties in Virginia
united and created a
separate state called West