The French Revolution - Our Lady of Lourdes High School

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Transcript The French Revolution - Our Lady of Lourdes High School

Mr. Lockwood
Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic High School
Chapter 18.1
Do Now: Take Out Homework
In most of Europe
 Old Regime – socio-political system which
existed in most of Europe during the 18th
 Countries were ruled by absolutism – the
monarch had absolute control over the
government (Divine Right)
 What do you suppose the enlightenment
philosophers think of this????
Causes of the French
Causes of
The French
1.The (unfair) Social Class
 In France, people were divided into three estates
 First Estate
 High-ranking members of the Church
 Privileged class
 Second Estate
 Nobility
 Privileged class
 Third Estate
 Everyone else – from peasants in the countryside to wealthy
bourgeoisie (middle class) merchants in the cities
 Unprivileged class
•High-ranking clergy
•Everyone else:
city workers,
merchants, peasants,
•Collected the tithe
•Censorship of the press
•Control of education
•Kept records of births, deaths,
marriages, etc.
•Catholic faith held honored position
of being the state religion (practiced
by monarch and nobility)
•Owned 20% of the land
•Paid no taxes
•Support the monarchy and Old Regime
•Collected taxes in the form of
feudal dues
•Owned 20% of the land
•Paid no taxes
•Support the monarchy and Old Regime
•Paid all taxes
•Tithe (Church tax)
•Octrot (tax on goods brought into cities)
•Corvée (forced road work)
•Capitation (poll tax)
•Vingtiéme (income tax)
•Gabelle (salt tax)
•Taille (land tax)
•Feudal dues for use of local manor’s
winepress, oven, etc.
Do Now: Take out HW answer
the questions below
 What are the responsibilities of a King?
 Which Enlightenment thinker would disagree
most with all the responsibilities a King has?
 Is anyone in here French? If not think about
your heritage and the country your from,
were your people at one time ruled by a
monarch? If so how was freedom gained?
 To get your grade:
 Multiply raw score on MC by 3 (do not pay attention
to the % correct)
 Add that number to what you scored out of 25 on
the writing
 People lost points in 2 common places
 Multiple choice (next test take a look at regents prep
and the questions at the end of the chapter)
 Part 2 of the writing task (many people did not even
attempt to address it!)
What was Louis the XVI’s job?
Appointed the
Intendants, the “petty
tyrants” who governed
France’s 30 districts
Appointed the people
who would collect his
taxes and carry out his
Controlled justice by
appointing judges
Controlled the military
Could imprison anyone
at any time for any
reason (blank warrants
of arrest were called
lettres de cachet)
Levied all taxes and
decided how to spend
the money
Made all laws
Made decisions
regarding war and
2. Too Much Power
 Louis XVI controlled all aspects of
the government
 Controlled the military
 Controlled the finances (what to do
with tax payer money)
 Controlled who paid taxes!!
3. Unfair Tax System
 First and second estates do not have to pay
the taille
Taille- France’s chief tax!
4. France is Bankrupt!!
 The king (Louis XVI) lavished money on
himself and residences like Versailles
 Queen Marie Antoinette was seen as a
wasteful spender
 Deficit spending – a government spending
more money than it takes in from tax
 Privileged classes would not submit to being
4b. The American Revolution
 The spark that puts France into financial crisis
 Louis XVI spends huge amounts to assist the
5. The Enlightenment
 People are discontent and looking for change
 Enlightened ideas offer a different path
 A path that calls for:
 Equality
 Separation of powers
 Democracy!!!
How the Revolution Begins
The Estates-General Meets
(which had not met since 1614)
 Winter of 1788-1789
 Louis XVI had called the Estates General meeting
to raise taxes to pay off growing debt
 Members of the estates elected representatives
 Nothing out of the ordinary at this meeting
How the Estates General Works
First Estate + Second Estate Versus Third Estate
• Voting was conducted by estate
– Each estate had one vote
– First and Second Estates could operate as a bloc
to stop the Third Estate from having its way
Quiz Tomorrow
 Who was the King of France before the
French Revolution?
Why did people hate Marie Ant0inette so
The causes of the French Revolution
The estate system
Helping which country helped spark the
financial crisis in France?
Meeting of the EstatesGeneral: May 5, 1789
• Representatives from the Third Estate
demanded that voting be by population
– This would give the Third Estate a great
– Third Estate declares itself the National
Tennis Court Oath
The Third Estate declared itself to be the National Assembly.
Louis XVI responded by locking the Third Estate out of the meeting.
The Third Estate relocated to a nearby tennis court where its members vowed to stay
together and create a written constitution for France.
On June 23, 1789, Louis XVI relented. He ordered the three estates to meet together
as the National Assembly and vote, by population, on a constitution for France.
National Assembly
 Louis XVI did not actually
want a written
 News of his plan to use
military force against the
National Assembly
reaches Paris
 On July 14, 1789, people
stormed the Bastille
 Peasant rebellions-attacks on nobles
 “Neither a man nor a crowd nor a nation can
be trusted to act humanely or to think sanely
under the influence of a great fear.”
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Freedom of
Freedom of
Freedom of
the press
Right of the
people to
create laws
Right to a fair
End of Special
This Day In History: October 1
 1768 - British troops under General Gauge land in
1776 – American Patriots learn they will have
French support
1791 - 1st session of new French legislative
1795 - France annexes Southern Netherlands
1795 - Belgium is conquered by France.
1800 - Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret
1814 - Opening of the Congress of Vienna,
intended to redraw the Europe's political map
after the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte the
previous spring.
Do Now: Define the following
words and answer the question
RadicalCommuneSans-culottesCritical Thinking/Drawing Connections:
 Why is it ironic that so many were executed during the
French Revolution? Whose ideas did this go against
 Topic: World Leaders
 He took office 34 days before FDR and left office 19
days after FDR. Who is he?
The Revolution Becomes Radical
Why the revolution becomes radical
 Threat of foreign intervention to restore
 Still food shortages
 Still financial woes
 War with Austria going badly
Goodbye, Versailles!
 Women attacked Versailles on October 5, 1789
 Royal family to relocates to Paris
 Allows the National Assembly to make some
 Flying of the new flag
Rise of the Commune
 Paris radicals declare themselves the
 Abolish the monarchy
 Take the King and Queen hostage
 Call themselves sans-culottes
 Meaning “without breeches” b/c they wore long
 Key members are Georges Danton and Jean-Paul
 1792 the French Republic is born
Fate of the King
 Girondins, less radical, lean towards keeping
him alive
 Jacobins club, push for execution
 Did not want the king to be a rallying point for
opponents of the republic
 1793 the King is condemned to death
 January 21 he is beheaded by the Guillotine!!!
Begin to develop an essay
Theme: Change – Revolution
Throughout history, revolutions have developed in response to a variety of conditions.
These revolutions have often resulted in significant political, economic and social change.
As we move through this chapter, we want to begin
to formulate an essay on the causes, stages, and
effects of the French Revolution.
You have the groundwork for this essay (you can
write an introduction, causes and beginning stages)
Helpful Hints:
The French Revolution occurred between the 1789 and 1795
(give or take)
The stages of the revolution begin with the calling of the
Estates General