Transcript Slide 1

Measuring R&D in the
social sciences: data
availability and gaps
Laudeline Auriol, OECD
Strategic Workshop:
Addressing the Shortage of
Data on the Social Sciences
and Humanities
14-15 September 2010
Social sciences and humanities (SSH)
in the Frascati manual
• SSH were included only from the 3rd edition of
the Frascati manual in 1976
• Definition of R&D: Research and experimental
development (R&D) comprise creative work
undertaken on a systematic basis in order to
increase the stock of knowledge, including
knowledge of man, culture and society, and the
use of this stock of knowledge to devise new
applications.
The Frascati fields of science
classification
• A fields of science (FoS) classification is
proposed in the Frascati Manual
• It is recommended as a principal subclassification in the higher education and private
non-profit sectors (institutional classification)
• It is also recommended as a functional
classification in the government, higher
education and private non-profit sectors
Revision of the FoS classification
Revised version from 2006
 STI/EAS/STP/NESTI(2006)19/FINAL
• The major 6 fields were sub-categorised into the 2-digit level
• “Other” categories were attached to every major field in order
to keep the classification flexible and allow for the appearance
of new areas of studies.
• The “other” categories of engineering and technology, social
sciences and humanities in the FM 2002 were split into several
sub-categories.
• In particular, “bio-technology” and “nano-technology” were
newly introduced in the “Engineering and technology” field.
• Data collection and reporting of the major six fields guarantee
international comparability of the R&D data over time.
The FoS classification at the
first digit level
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Natural sciences
Engineering and technology
Medical and health sciences
Agricultural sciences
Social sciences
Humanities
5. Social sciences
5.1 Psychology
• Psychology (including human - machine relations);
• Psychology, special (including therapy for learning, speech, hearing, visual
and other physical and mental disabilities);
5.2 Economics and Business
• Economics, Econometrics; Industrial relations;
• Business and Management;
5.3 Educational sciences
• Education, general; including training, pedagogy, didactics;
• Education, special (to gifted persons, those with learning disabilities);
5.4 Sociology
• Sociology; Demography; Anthropology, ethnology,
• Social topics (Women’s and gender studies; Social issues; Family studies,
Social work);
5. Social sciences
5.5 Law
• Law, criminology, penology;
5.6 Political science
• Political science; public administration; organisation theory;
5.7 Social and economic geography
• Environmental sciences (social aspects); Cultural and economic geography;
Urban studies (Planning and development); Transport planning and social
aspects of transport (transport engineering to be 2.1);
5.8 Media and communications
• Journalism; Information science (social aspects); Library science; Media and
socio-cultural communication;
5.9 Other social sciences
• Social sciences, interdisciplinary;
• Other social sciences;
6. Humanities
6.1 History and Archaeology
• History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific
sciences to be under the respective headings); Archaeology;
6.2 Languages and Literature
• General language studies; Specific languages; General literature studies;
Literary theory; Specific literatures; Linguistics;
6.3 Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
• Philosophy, History and philosophy of science and technology;
• Ethics (except ethics related to specific subfields); Theology; Religious
studies;
6.4 Arts (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music)
• Arts, Art history; Architectural design; Performing arts studies (Musicology,
Theater science, Dramaturgy); Folklore studies;
• Studies on Film, Radio and Television;
6.5 Other humanities
Data collected at the OECD level
• 2nd digit level:
– GERD by sector of performance and FoS
– Headcount researchers (and female researchers) by
sector of employment and FoS
• 1st digit level:
– Tot. R&D personnel by sector and FoS (FTE)
– Researchers (and female researchers) by sector of
employments and FoS (FTE)
– HERD/PNP exp. by source of funds and FoS
– HERD/PNP exp. by type of costs and FoS
R&D expenditure in the social sciences as a
percentage of total HERD
35.0
%
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
R&D expenditure in the social science as a
percentage of total GOVERD
25.0
%
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0
Percentage distribution of HERD in the SSH
across disciplines
HERD
Australia Austria Czech Rep. Finland Hungary Norway Portugal Romania
Social sciences and humanities
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Humanities
23.2
40.1
38.4
26.8
37.0
32.3
38.1
47.8
Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music) 6.0
8.2
3.5
9.2
4.6
2.3
7.8
0.9
History and archaeology
6.0
11.4
6.5
3.2
5.0
2.2
9.9
Languages and literature
5.8
14.8
2.5
8.1
16.2
4.2
13.6
Other humanities
2.4
0.3
6.9
3.1
6.6
20.5
2.7
46.4
Philosophy, ethics and religion
3.1
5.4
19.0
3.2
4.6
3.1
4.1
0.6
Social Siences
76.8
59.9
61.6
73.2
63.0
67.7
61.9
52.2
Economics and business
26.4
21.8
13.1
26.4
21.4
6.0
17.9
43.6
Educational sciences
13.0
5.3
14.5
15.1
10.9
9.9
14.6
5.9
Law
6.5
11.8
5.1
4.6
7.6
5.9
4.4
0.5
Media and communications
2.0
2.8
0.8
4.4
2.0
1.6
2.2
Other social sciences
3.7
23.5
2.5
11.3
33.8
1.6
0.9
Political Science
5.8
1.8
2.0
3.7
2.6
2.5
2.0
1.3
Psychology
11.3
3.6
0.0
4.0
2.0
5.6
8.9
0.0
Social and economic geography
1.6
4.4
2.6
1.7
1.2
0.8
2.4
Sociology
10.2
4.6
0.0
10.9
4.1
1.5
7.9
Percentage distribution of GOVERD in the
SSH across disciplines
GOVERD
Australia Austria Czech Rep. Finland Hungary Norway Portugal Romania
Social sciences and humanities
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
Humanities
7.0
64.8
51.7
12.4
57.1
12.1
34.1
58.9
Art (arts, history of arts, performing arts, music) 1.7
31.7
7.0
1.7
4.0
9.6
1.6
History and archaeology
3.5
25.5
21.6
2.3
35.2
21.8
8.4
Languages and literature
0.1
5.5
3.9
6.9
6.2
2.0
18.4
Other humanities
0.2
0.7
12.7
0.8
10.4
0.7
29.0
Philosophy, ethics and religion
1.5
1.4
6.5
0.7
1.3
0.0
1.5
Social Siences
93.0
35.2
48.3
87.6
42.9
87.9
65.9
41.1
Economics and business
38.4
15.4
0.0
24.8
15.7
20.0
4.8
Educational sciences
5.7
3.0
12.3
5.2
0.2
3.5
4.4
Law
13.1
1.9
1.7
1.9
1.9
3.4
Media and communications
0.7
5.4
0.3
2.7
Other social sciences
5.3
18.4
3.1
13.2
5.5
19.6
Political Science
1.2
1.5
1.0
4.9
4.2
1.1
9.2
Psychology
14.0
0.7
1.3
9.6
2.8
2.5
1.0
Social and economic geography
0.7
0.0
2.6
6.1
Sociology
19.1
6.2
8.2
35.2
4.9
21.1
2.1
To summarise
• Gaps in the measurement of social science R&D are linked to:
– The late inclusion of SSH in the Frascati definition and
recommendations
– To the more general weaknesses and challenges in the measurement of
R&D
• In particular, better data on the business (services) and
private non-profit sectors would be needed (in Portugal, the
share of R&D in social sciences reaches 14% of BERD)
• There are many existing fields of science classifications used
at national level for different purposes  the Frascati
classification is a compromise aimed at achieving a minimum
level of comparability at international level
• Better correspondence with ISCED fields of study would be
needed
Thank you!
laudeline.aur[email protected]