# 1. What are determiners?

 Words that

precede

any pre modifying adjectives in a noun phrase and which denote such

referential meanings

.

 In terms of function, they break into two major types:

identifiers and quantifiers

.

  

Identifiers: specific reference generic reference quantifiers: definite quantity indefinite quantity

Differences between determiners and adjectives

1. Determiners usually precede adjectives a nice man wrong: nice a man 2. The choice of determiners is often determined by the head word but not adjectives.

Many good people wrong: much good people 3. Adjectives show the characteristics of the head word, but determiners identify or quantify it.

Many good books three English books

### Classification:

Determiners, as a class of words, include:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Articles

(definite article, indefinite article, zero article)

Possessive

determiners:

my, your, his, her Genitive nouns

:

John’s, my friend’s Demonstrative

determiners:

this, that, these Relative

determiners:

whose, which Interrogative

determiners:

what, which, whose Indefinite

determiners:

no, some, each, several Cardinal

and

Ordinal

numerals:

Multiplicative

and

Fractional

numerals

Quantifiers

:

a lot of, plenty of, a large amount of

### Problems

when more than one determiner occurs in the noun phrase, there is the problem of word order between determiners.

### Collocations between Determiners

According to their potential position, determiners fall into three subclasses:

,

and

.

# The Order:

all the four teachers all your three books all these last few days half his lecture those last few months several hundred guests all other students such a misfortune some such alloy

Pre Central Post

### Questions for thought:

 His some friends usually speak highly of him.

 His every action shows that he is a very determined young man.

 We have got enough time to read such many novels.

 page63

### Exercises:

 (the other, five, all) boys were in the classroom.

 (such, one) dictionary is enough for me.

 They want at least (double, their) salaries.

 He was on leave (few last the) days.

 (such, few) cases have been reported.

 He has been staying home (all last few these) days.

  60. Land belongs to the city; there is __ thing as private ownership of land. (2006) A. no such a B. not such C. not such a D. no such      62. Which of the following sentences is INCORRECT? (2010) A. All his lectures are very interesting.

B. Half their savings were gone.

C. Many his friends came to the party.

D. Both his sisters are nurses.

  59. The additional work will take _____ weeks. (2011) A. the other B. another two C. other two D. the more

### 3) some, any

 To express the idea of “ 一些” , we can use some/ any. As an assertive word,

some

is generally used in

affirmative sentences

, and

any

, which is nonassertive word, is generally used

in negative or interrogative sentences, in conditional sentences or in sentences with negative implications.

   When

some

occurs in questions, it is implied that the speaker expects an affirmative answer. For instance, when one is expecting letters, he may ask “

Are there some letters for me?”

Likewise, when showing hospitality to his guests, the host may ask

“Would you like some chocolate cake?”

When some is followed by a singular count noun, it denotes the idea of no matter which( 任何一个 ), eg:

Some boy has broken a window.

Any child can answer that question.

### 4) all, both, every, each, either, any

 All the items in this group can function both as determiners and as indefinite pronouns with the exception of

every

which is s determiner only.

    a) to express the idea of “ two.

None of the students failed the exam.

I’ll have none of your stupid ideas.

No one in the class failed the exam.

?None in the class failed the exam.

  b) to express the idea of “ 每个” , we can use every and each. Every cannot be used to speak of only two people or things, or in phrases like “each of the boys”/ “the boys each”, eg:

Each side of the street was crowded with people.

Each/ Every side of the square was crowded with people.

 Another difference in the usage of every and each is that when thinking of

a whole group

, we use

every

, and when thinking of

one at a time

, we use

each

. Compare: 

We want every child (=all the children) to succeed.

Each child will find his own way to succeed.

The queen shook hands with each player in turn after the game.

  c) to express the idea of “ 任何一个” , we can use any or either.

Any

refers to

three or more either

than three people or things, while to

two people or things

only.

In phrases like “on either side”/”at either end”, the word either is used to mean “both” ---“on both sides/ at both ends”: 

There are warehouses on either side of the river.

He got off the train with a bundle on either arm.

### 3. Usage of the articles:

 Articles are the most typical of determiners.

 English has

two

articles: the definite and the indefinite articles. As we know, all English common nouns have article contrast, so with plural count nouns and noncount nouns, the absence of an article signals the presence of another kind of article----

the zero article

. It is in this sense that we may also say the English has

three articles----- the definite, the indefinite, and the zero article

.

### 3. Usage of the articles:

 Articles are

the most typical

of determiners.

 English has

two indefinite

articles: articles.

the definite

and

the

 With plural count nouns and noncount nouns, the absence of an article signals the presence of another kind of article----

the zero article

.

 It is in this sense that we may also say the English has

three articles----- the definite, the indefinite, and the zero article

.

### Pronunciation:

The

is pronounced / ðə/ before a consonant sound and / ði/ before a vowel sound.

  The book the article Indefinite article

a

/ ə/ is used before a consonant sound and

an

/ ə n / before a vowel sound.

 A book an article

### Functions of articles:

Generic and Specific Reference

Generic

reference refers to

the class in general

, while

specific

reference refers to identifiable units and

no other.

 When we say the reference is

generic

, we are talking about any member representative of a

class of people or things

. 

Specific

reference refers to

a particular

specimen of the class.

Generic reference: Galileo claimed that he had invented the

telescope.

An ox is a useful animal.

Carrots are my favorite vegetables.

Knowledge is power.

 

Specific reference: Old Tom owns a dog and a cat.

The dog’s

name is Boris; the cat’s name is Blackie. (definite) The streets are clean and are shaded with trees.

7A

### 3.1Indefinite article

  1. The main function: to classify , to indicate class membership.

It can refer to a class as a whole.

    

A horse is a useful animal.

This is a dictionary, not an encyclopedia.

2. Nouns referring to a job/profession as subject complement.

Miss Wang is a teacher.

His wife is a waitress.

   3. a(n) as a weaker form of one.

I’d like a cup of coffee.

I only want one cup of coffee and you ‘ve given me two.

The wall will collapse at a blow.

The wall will collapse at one blow.

 4. in some set collocations or idioms 

In a hurry in a minute

Have a cold/a sore throat/a cough

  5. not usually used with proper nouns except referring to the category of countable nouns.

You’ll never be a Mozart.

Father bought her a complete Lu Xun

.

 6. not usually used with mass nouns except referring to the category of countable nouns. (denoting a kind/type of)

He was caught in a heavy rain.

Parents love their children with a devotion for which they ask for no return.

### 3.2 Definite article

    1. primarily used for specific reference to a particular example of a class.

Helen is in the library.

2. used of a phenomenon conceived of as “unique”:

Make hay while the sun shines.

    3. used to denote generic reference:

The computer is an electronic machine for storing and processing data.

4. used before the names of musical instruments:

I usually play the violin in my spare time.

5. used before the names of organizations, offices and institutions, public buildings, ships , most newspapers and magazines: 

the People’s Congress the National Museum the Democratic Party the People’s Daily

 6. before personal names in the plural form referring to the family: 

The Blacks the Smiths

 7. before the names of seas, rivers, mountains, straits, deserts, and most of the bays and gulfs: 

The Atlantic the Mississippi the Persian Gulf

The Sahara The Taiwan Straits the Alps

### 3.3 Zero article

 1. proper nouns mostly take no article:  2. before plural nouns, used to denote generic reference: 

African elephants have larger ears than Indian elephants

.

     

All the three forms of article

(the, a (n), and zero) can be used generically to refer to the

members of a class as a whole.

Compare:

*Ruthless poachers hunt an elephant for the valuable ivory of its tusks. (one example of a class) Ruthless poachers hunt the elephant …… (formal) Ruthless poachers hunt elephants…of their tusks.

(both refer to the whole class)

 3. usually before material and abstract nouns:   

It is impossible to live in a world without hope

.

4. before times and seasons:

At night, in summer

  

If winter comes, can spring be far behind?

5. before names of official posts, titles and professions:

Who’s captain of the ship?

   6.before names of sports, meals and transport:

Play football, have lunch, by bus 7C

7. before certain singular count nouns, especially those referring to institutions

, such as

bed, church, school, college, court, hospital, office, prison,

etc.

They go to church every Sunday morning.

We went to the church to attend a wedding ceremony

.

Class begins at 8 in the morning.

There are twenty students in the class.

She stayed in hospital for three weeks.

I went to the hospital to see my friend.

### Other uses of articles:

 1.zero commonly used before some idioms composed of two nouns: 

Heart and soul, husband and wife, arm in arm, face to face.

2. in some prepositional phrases, things are different when nouns take zero or the definite.

Notes are printed at the bottom of the page.

He is a good man at bottom.

### More prepositional phrases:

 In the future & in future  In charge of & in the charge of  In possession of & in the possession of  In case of & in the case of  In fashion & in the fashion of & in a fashion  Out of question & out of the question  7E

 1. The idea of traveling through _____ space to other planets interests many people today.

 a. a b. the c. / d. one  2. The rising crime rate is _____ major concern of _____ society.  A. the, the B. a, / C. a, the D. /, the

### Error correction:

 A language is unique to humans.

 Film is a form of mass entertainment.

 I wanted to go to the university, but I wanted to be an actor more.

 Times is a British daily newspaper.

 White House is refusing to comment on the report.

 The children have taken fancy to their nurses.

### Exercise:

1.This is __ first time that the child has seen __ elephant.

2. Can you lend me __ pencil so that I can finish __ test?

3. For many people, __ childhood was a happy time.

4. __ Man has just taken his first steps into __ space.

5. I love __ mountains, but I hate __ sea.

6. If you go by __ train, you can have quite __ comfortable journey, but make sure that you get __ express, not __ train that stops at all __ stations.

7. He was sent to __ prison for stealing.

8. Children should be taught to behave themselves at __ table.