Understanding the Bilingual Education Controversy

Download Report

Transcript Understanding the Bilingual Education Controversy

Theories of Learning
Pavlov’s Classical Behaviorism:
stimulus-response behavior leads to learning
learning process consists of the formation of
associations between stimuli and reflexive responses
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning:
Human behavior and learning are the result of
operant conditioning; humans operate on the
reinforces (feedback) are stronger aspects of
learning than is stimulus-response association
feedback and reinforcement fosters learning and
change of behavior
when a behavior is not reinforced it disappears or is
David Ausubel’s Meaningful Learning
Theory/Rationalistic Theory:
Human behavior is abstract in nature; it cannot
not be controlled or predicted
Learning takes place through a meaningful
process of relating new events or items to
already existing cognitive
Meaningful learning is a process of relating and
anchoring new material to relevant established
entities in cognitive structure
As new material enters the cognitive structure
it interacts with and is appropriately associated
under higher order categories for meaningful
Roger’s Humanistic Psychology
Perspective of a constructivist view of learning
Learning takes place in a non-threatening
environment, which allows a person to form a picture
of reality that is congruent with reality
The goal of education is the facilitation of change
and learning
The context for learning must be properly created
Learning is not filling the student with information
True knowledge is facilitated when the student is
allowed to negotiate learning outcomes, to
cooperate with teachers and peers in a process of
discovery, to engage in critical thinking, to be
empowered to achieve solutions to real problems
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive
Piaget’s theory is about cognitive development as
the key to explain how individuals perceive, think,
understand, and learn
Cognitive development is perceived as consisting
primarily of logical and mathematical abilities
Intelligence is synonymous with thinking in that it
involves mental operations
Intelligence develops as children psychologically
adapt to their environment and reconcile
discrepancies between current forms and previously
acquired forms of understanding
Meaning is construed based on previous
background knowledge structures
Schemata are the previously acquired knowledge
structures through experience. Schemes: mental
systems of knowledge categories—units of
knowledge that children develop through the
adaptation process.
• Active learning: by being physically and mentally
engaged in learning activities, children develop
knowledge and learn.
• Assimilation: process of fitting new information
into existing schemes.
• Accommodation: changing or altering existing
schemes or creating new ones in response to new
• Equilibrium: balance between existing schemes
developed through assimilation and intake of new
information through accommodation.
Piaget’s Constructivism And
Cognitive Development
in Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today
Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive
in Morrison, 2004.
Early Childhood Education
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Learning
Learning is social; every child reaches his or her
potential development, in part, through social
Social interaction, through language, is a prerequisite to cognitive development;
Learning awakens a variety of developmental
processes that are able to operate only when the
child is interacting with people. Once these
processes are internalized (as the child approaches
the zone of proximal development), they become
part of the child’s independent developmental
Zone of Proximal Development:
in Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today
– Vygotsky’s concept of the zone of proximal
The area of development into which a child can be
led in the course of interaction with a more
competent partner,’ either adult or peer. [It] is not
some clear-cut space that exists independently of
joint activity itself. Rather, it is the difference
between what the child can accomplish
independently and what he or she can achieve in
conjunction with another more competent person.
The zone is thus created in the course of social
 Learning awakens a variety of developmental
processes that are able to operate only when the
child is interacting with people. Once these
processes are internalized (as the child reaches
the zone of proximal development), they become
part of the child’s independent developmental
– The zone of proximal development (ZPD) represents
the tasks that children cannot do independently but
can do when helped by a more competent adult; it
encompasses the range of tasks that are too difficult
to master alone but that can be learned with
guidance and assistance.
– Vygotsky’s scaffolding is assistance of some kind
that enables children to complete tasks they cannot
complete independently. It is the process of providing
different levels of support, guidance, or direction
during the course of an activity.
• Abraham Maslow’s (1890—1970) Selfactualization Theory of Learning
– Maslow’s self-actualization theory is based on the
satisfaction of human needs. Once the basic needs are
satisfied, the child can reach self-actualization, or selffulfillment--the highest human need.
– Recognition and approval are self-esteem needs that
relate to success and accomplishment.
– Children who are independent and responsible, and
who achieve, will have high self-esteem
– Self-esteem increases the possibilities of achievement.
– When children have a sense of satisfaction, they are
enthusiastic, and are eager to learn and become
involved in activities that will lead to higher levels of
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Morrison, 2004. Early Childhood Education Today
• Erik Erikson’s (1902—1994) Theory of
Psychosocial Development
– Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development is based on
the premise that cognitive and social development occur
hand in hand and cannot be separated.
– Children’s personalities and social skills grow and develop
within the context of society and in response to society’s
demands, expectations, values, a social institutions such
as families, schools, and child care programs.
– School-age children must deal with demands to learn new
skills or risk a sense of incompetence –they either develop
an ability to do, be involved, be competent, and achieve or
a feeling of inferiority, failure, and incompetence.
• Howard Gardner’s Theory of
Multiple Intelligences
– Gardner has identified nine intelligences: visual
spatial, verbal/linguistic, mathematical/logical,
bodily/kinesthetic, musical/rhythmic, intrapersonal,
interpersonal, naturalistic, and existentialist.
Gardner’s view of intelligence and its multiple
components has influenced educational thought and
Howard Gardner’s
Theory of Multiple
In Morrison, 2004. Early
Childhood Education Today