International Human Rights

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Transcript International Human Rights

International Human Rights
Human Rights and International
• League of Nations
 petitions
•  international labour standards
The United Nations Charter - Preamble
to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,
which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to
mankind, and
to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights, in the
dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights
of men and women and of nations large and small, and
to establish conditions under which justice and respect for
the obligations arising from treaties and other sources of
international law can be maintained, and
to promote social progress and better standards of life in
larger freedom,
• to practice tolerance and live together in peace
with one another as good neighbours, and
• to unite our strength to maintain international
peace and security, and
• to ensure, by the acceptance of principles and
the institution of methods, that armed force shall
not be used, save in the common interest, and
• to employ international machinery for the
promotion of the economic and social
advancement of all peoples,
Article 1
The Purposes of the United Nations are:
1. To maintain international peace and security, and to that end: to take
effective collective measures for the prevention and removal of threats
to the peace, and for the suppression of acts of aggression or other
breaches of the peace, and to bring about by peaceful means, and in
conformity with the principles of justice and international law,
adjustment or settlement of international disputes or situations which
might lead to a breach of the peace;
2. To develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for the
principle of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, and to take
other appropriate measures to strengthen universal peace;
3. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems of
an economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian character, and in promoting
and encouraging respect for human rights and for fundamental freedoms
for all without distinction as to race, sex, language, or religion; and
4. To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in the attainment of
these common ends.
With a view to the creation of conditions of stability and
well-being which are necessary for peaceful and friendly
relations among nations based on respect for the principle
of equal rights and self-determination of peoples, the
United Nations shall promote:
a. higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions
of economic and social progress and development;
b. solutions of international economic, social, health, and
related problems; and international cultural and
educational cooperation; and
c. universal respect for, and observance of, human rights
and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as
to race, sex, language, or religion.
Article 56
All Members pledge themselves to take joint
and separate action in co-operation with the
Organization for the achievement of the
purposes set forth in Article 55.
Specialized Agencies - Article 57
1. The various specialized agencies, established
by intergovernmental agreement and having
wide international responsibilities, as defined in
their basic instruments, in economic, social,
cultural, educational, health, and related fields,
shall be brought into relationship with the United
Nations in accordance with the provisions of
Article 63.
2. Such agencies thus brought into relationship
with the United Nations are hereinafter referred
to as specialized agencies.
Specialized Agencies
Article 58
The Organization shall make recommendations for the coordination of the policies and activities of the specialized agencies.
Article 59
The Organization shall, where appropriate, initiate negotiations
among the states concerned for the creation of any new specialized
agencies required for the accomplishment of the purposes set forth
in Article 55.
Article 60
Responsibility for the discharge of the functions of the Organization
set forth in this Chapter shall be vested in the General Assembly
and, under the authority of the General Assembly, in the Economic
and Social Council, which shall have for this purpose the powers set
forth in Chapter X.
UN principal organs
General Assembly
Security Council
Economic and Social Council
Trusteeship Council (not active any longer)
International Court of Justice
UN Action in the Field of Human Rights
Programmes and Funds
International Trade Centre (ITC)
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
United Nations Capital Development Fund (UNCDF)
United Nations Volunteers (UNV)
United Nations Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) (2)
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT)
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)
United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA)
United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)
Research and Training Institutes
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR)
United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)
United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)
United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD)
Generations of
Human Rights?
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
General Comment No. 14 (2000)
The right to the highest attainable standard of health (Art.12)
33. The right to health, like all human rights, imposes three
types or levels of obligations on States parties: the
obligations to respect, protect and fulfil. In turn, the
obligation to fulfil contains obligations to facilitate, provide
and promote.
The obligation to respect requires States to refrain from
interfering directly or indirectly with the enjoyment of the
right to health.
The obligation to protect requires States to take measures
that prevent third parties from interfering with article 12
guarantees. Finally, the obligation to fulfil requires States
to adopt appropriate legislative, administrative, budgetary,
judicial, promotional and other measures towards the full
realization of the right to health.