Transcript Slide 1

Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning
Pre-workshop 2
Designing Teaching and Learning Activities
Intended Outcomes of Pre-workshop Exercises
for members of each group
1. Review existing teaching and learning activities
(TLAs) in relation to alignment with subject ILOs.
2. Identify areas requiring changes.
3. Revise or re-design TLAs to align to subject ILOs.
4. Discuss and share your ideas with your group
Before the Workshop
Refer to the Pre-workshop reference provided and the
revised subject ILOs in Pre-workshop Exercise 1, conduct
Pre-workshop Exercises 3 to design TLAs for the revised
subject IlOs. Consider if the TLAs and especially the learning
activities will engage your students to enact the subject ILO
Discuss with your group members when doing the above
Complete the exercise to be ready for discussion and sharing in
the workshops on 2 December 2006.
Outcomes-based Teaching and Learning (OBTL)
using Constructive Alignment
Engaging the
student in the
verb in the ILO
What the
has to learn
How well
the student
has met the
Designing TLAs to align to
Intended Learning Outcomes
Having designed Subject ILOs, we now need to activate
the verbs or learning activities embedded in the ILOs by
designing suitable TLAs that will facilitate students
achieving the ILOs.
TLAs should be aligned to ILOs by addressing the
verb(s) in the ILOs, thus requiring students to enact the
ILO verbs.
. Consider what teacher and student activities will be
conducted in each of the TLAs.
Designing TLAs to align to
Intended Learning Outcomes
In any teaching and learning situation e.g. lecture,
tutorial, laboratory or project etc, TLAs include what
the teacher does (teaching activities) and what the
student does (learning activities). What the student does
more important in achieving the ILOs than what the
teacher does.
TLAs could be either large and small class activities.
TLAs could be either teacher-, peer- or student self
managed as best suit the context.
Some common TLAs and associated teaching and learning
Teaching activities
Learning activities
talk, explain, clarify
listen, take notes, accept, query,
discuss with peers, one-minute
set/answer questions
provide feedback
pre-read, prepare questions,
learn from peers, critique,
analyse, discuss with peers
set topics and guidelines
search information, select,
organize ideas, explain,
describe, integrate, apply what
has been learned, write
the assignment, revise and edit,
may be discuss with peers
Some common TLAs and associated teaching and learning
Teaching activities
Learning activities
set brief, provide
apply, integrate, create, design,
experiment, write report, selfmonitor, communicate, work in
a team
provide feedback
practise, experiment, apply,
self-evaluate, solve problems
set problems,
provide feedback
set learning goals, accessing
desired content and skills, design,
integrate, apply, solve problems
The TLA here is more like a situation in which the learner engages in
learning activities requiring the ILO verbs, which makes it more
likely the intended learning outcomes will be achieved.
Typical ILOs
Solve problem
Design, create
Possible TLAs
set reading, lecture, field trip
tutorial, written essay
project, assignment
project, case study, laboratory
PBL, case study, peer discussion,
project, creative writing
experiment, project
reflective diary
The point is not how you are going to teach (teaching activities) but how and
what you want your students to learn (learning activities).
NOTE! Many of these TLAs can be assessment tasks as well. Then you have
excellent alignment.
Adjusting TLAs to relative importance of
Is the time spent on TLAs reflecting the relative
weight or importance of the ILO addressed?
Are students given more opportunitites to
engage in enacting the more important ILO
Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on
written communicative strategies
1. Explain different (writing) communicative strategies.
TLAs: a. Plenary session (‘lectures’)
Teaching activities - describe, explain, elaborate, clarify
Learning activities - pre-reading, ask questions, group
discussion, explain to peers
b. Write assignment
Teaching activities - set topics and guidelines, provide feedback
Learning activities - explain the strategies in the assignment
There may be other TLAs which will engage students in
explaining different writing communicative strategies.
Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on
written communicative strategies
2. Apply appropriate (writing) communicative strategies
TLAs: a. Case study
Teaching activities - select case study material (may be), provide
comments and feedback
Learning activities - select piece of writing for case study, discuss with
peers in small groups, analyse, comment, suggest
ways of improvement, present own ideas or
discussion results in an individual written
b. Write an assignment or a group discussion report
Teaching activities - set topic (may be), give guideline of requirements
of the assignment (relate requirements to
relevant ILOs), provide feedback
Learning activities - write the assignment using appropriate strategies,
revise, edit, self-assess
There may be other TLAs which will engage students in applying
appropriate strategies in a range of writing tasks.
Some sample TLAs for subject ILOs on
writing strategies
3. Reflect and improve own writing communicative strategies.
Teaching activities - provide feedback
Learning activities - self-evaluate a piece of own writing, e.g. an
earlier assignment in relation to theories on
writing communicative strategies, identify
strengths and areas for improvement, revise
writing using appropriate strategies in light of
There may be other TLAs which will engage students in
reflecting and improving their own writing strategies.
Exercise 3 - Designing Teaching and Learning Activities
Refer to the revised ILOs in Pre-workshop Exercises 1,
design TLAs to align to the ILOs. Discuss with your group
Subject ILOs
Teaching activities
Learning activities
After you have completed the pre-workshop
1. select one group member to share your
ideas at the workshop, and
2. jot down any issues that you would like to
bring up for discussion at the workshop.