Civil Rights - Dwight D Eisenhower Junior High School

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Transcript Civil Rights - Dwight D Eisenhower Junior High School

Section #1
 Unfair
treatment of African Americans
 Separation
of people of different races
 Organization
that carried out protests against
public places that refused to serve/admit
African Americans
 Organization
set up to challenge segregation laws
 Chief
case
lawyer for NAACP who argued Brown
 Made
separate but equal legal in America
 Supreme
Court decision that decided
segregated schools were illegal. Overturned
Plessy v. Ferguson
 The
bringing of races together in public
schools
9
black students who integrated an all-white
Central high school in Little Rock
 Opposed
Arkansas
integration of public schools in
 African
American who was arrested for
violating the bussing laws on segregation
 A/A
refused to ride busses in Montgomery
until they were desegregated
 Civil
Rights leader who helped organize the
bus boycott and preached non violence
 Refusal
to obey laws that are deemed unjust
 Organization
that helped A/A fight for equality.
Stressed non-violence
Some of the legal challenges to segregation were:
1.
the Brown v. the Board of Education court case,
2.
The arrest of Rosa Parks
3.
The struggle in Arkansas between the president & Governor
Faubus over integration of Central High School.
Some social challenges were:
1.
the Montgomery Bus Boycott
2.
Non-violent protests
3.
The creation of organizations such as C.O.R.E. and S.C.L.C.
1. When war broke out many African Americans got
jobs in factories that usually only hired whites.
 2.
African Americans also joined the war and many
fought bravely for democracy & freedom, yet they
didn’t necessarily enjoy those same freedoms at home.
 3.
The Holocaust showed everyone what
discrimination and racism could lead to and many
people felt that we needed to end this practice in
America.

1. The Brown case was significant in that it
overturned the Court’s earlier decision under Plessey.
2. It was now declaring that separate but equal was
unconstitutional.
3. After this decision schools were forced to
desegregate, and eventually this integration
expanded to all public facilities.
 MLK
means that African Americans would take a
stand to gain the rights due to them as American
citizens
Kennedy & Johnson
 Expanded
African American voting
 Increased job opportunities
 Outlawed discrimination in federal housing
 Established Committee on Equal Employment
Opportunity
 Name
given to Kennedy’s social reform plan.
 He also backed federal aid for education &
the poor.
 He supported civil rights but didn’t act to
strongly so as to not upset Southern
Democrats.
 The
man charged with assassinating
President Kennedy on November 22, 1963.
He would later be killed before he could
stand trial.
•
Provided funds to poorer states for
education
•
Gave federal funding to poor African
American colleges
•
Signed legislation that outlawed
discrimination in registering voters
 Nickname
given to LBJ’s domestic policy.
 It centered on reducing poverty, promoting
equality, improving education, and rebuilding
decaying cities.
 Program
that focused on helping people that
lived below the poverty line, the minimum
income needed to live.
 It created Head Start, which provided
preschool education for the poor.
 It also created Job Corps that trained young
people for the work place.
 Act
1964: Act passed during LBJ’s
administration.
 It banned discrimination against African
Americans in employment, voting, & public
places.
 It forbade discrimination by race, gender,
religion, and national origin.
 JFK
& LBJ had similar ideas for social
programs to help Americans (help for the
poor, support for education, and civil rights)
 However; Kennedy was unable to get his
initiatives through Congress, while Johnson
was highly successful in getting his Great
Society programs passed.
 LBJ
wants Americans to view poverty, ignorance,
and disease as enemies instead of other people.
 If people focus on the things that make us different
and not the actual people then maybe we can
overcome these differences and end hatred &
violence among different races.
 Johnson
was most likely more successful in passing
the civil rights bill because he had more legislative
experience then Kennedy. LBJ served 22 years in
Congress prior to entering the White House.
 Also, Congress most likely passed legislation to
honor Kennedy after his assassination.
 The
act of protesting by sitting down &
refusing to leave when asked. These
protests were often nonviolent in nature.
 Four
African American men stage a sit-in at
the Woolworth’s lunch counter in order to
protest segregation.
 T.V. coverage helps spread the sit-in to
numerous other locations.
 An
organization helped founded by Ella Baker
that focused on nonviolence protests often
by college students.
 An
attempt by members of CORE, both black
& white, to test if bus facilities were truly
desegregated.
 Freedom Riders were attacked in Alabama &
arrested in Mississippi but did not stop
coming.
 Finally in the fall of 1961 interstate busses &
facilities were desegregated.
 The
first African American to enroll & attend
the University of Mississippi.
 Governor Ross Barnett used state police to
keep him from registering.
 Finally JFK sent federal marshals & troops to
protect Meredith.
 Letter
written by MLK in response to
criticism from a group of white clergy who
wanted him to stop his nonviolent protests &
his desegregation efforts.
 He wrote this from a jail cell after being
arrested for protesting in Birmingham.
A
peaceful rally, held in D.C. in August of
1963 to support the civil rights bill. Over
200,000 people of all colors attended.
 MLK gave his famous “I Have a Dream”
speech.
 An
attempt by civil rights workers to get
African Americans throughout the south
registered to vote.
 The workers often faced violent opposition.
 An
act that gave the federal government the
power to force local officials to allow African
Americans to register & vote.
 Onetime
leader of the Nation of Islam,
commonly known as the Black Muslims.
 He didn’t want integration but wanted a
separate black America.
 He later softened his views and was
assassinated by members of the Nation of
Islam.
A
violent organization out of Oakland,
California made up mostly of inner city poor
African Americans who wanted to truly fight
for their rights.
 They had numerous violent altercations with
police.
 Onetime
leader of the SNCC who promoted
the idea of Black Power.
 He wanted to create a black culture &
independent political institution.
 He was rejected by the NAACP but did gain
popularity with many poor urban blacks.
Civil rights groups used civil disobedience and
nonviolence to force desegregation of public places,
demonstrations to draw attention to the lack of
voting rights, and legal challenges to unjust laws.
 Sit-ins
were effective in challenging
segregation because they were a nonviolent
form of protest.
 They
cost individual businesses lots of money
which forced owners to change their
segregation policies.
 People
from all over the country could watch
these demonstrations and help demand
change.
 People could see the white policemen
beating nonviolent protestors and became
enraged.
 TV helped the civil rights movement expand
rapidly across the country. The successful
use of the sit-in is an example.
He meant that African Americans were seen as
not fully human. Achieving civil rights could
not happen until African Americans were
respected as human beings.
The violence of the riots may have turned
people against the civil rights movement.
Continued violence jeopardized the nonviolent
message that MLK & others were promoting.
 Activist
who fight for women’s rights

A group that fought for equal rights for
women in all aspects of life- jobs, education,
and marriage
 An
attempt by NOW to get an amendment
added to the constitution that stated “
equality of rights under the law shall not be
denied or abridged by the United States or
any state on account of sex”
 This amendment never get enough states to
ratify it so it was never added to the
constitution.
 First
female Supreme Court Justice, she was
appointed by Ronald Reagan in 1981she
served on the court until 2006, when she
retired.
 Leader
of the United Farm Workers union.
He fought for equality for Mexican Americans
 Union
created to fight for the rights of
migrant farm workers from Mexico.
 They organized protests and boycotts in
order to gain better work pay & shorter
hours.
 An
organization that was created to fight
discrimination against Latinos & to elect
Latinos to government posts.
 An
act passed by Congress in 1968 which
protected the constitutional rights of all
Native Americans.
 It also recognized the right of Native
American nations to make laws on their own
reservations.
 An
organization that worked for equal rights
and better living conditions for all Native
Americans.
 The group successfully used protests and
extended overtaking of buildings to get what
they wanted.
A
1975 Act that asserted the right of children
with disabilities to equal educational
opportunity.
 School must also offer special services to
meet their needs.
 Women,
Latinos, Native Americans, and
people with disabilities organized to fight for
equal rights.
 All achieved varying degrees of success in
bringing about change, although no group
achieved all of its aims.
 Women
had fewer opportunities than men,
and women were paid only 59 cents for every
dollar men made.
 They also suffered from verbal abuse and
sexist remarks.
Answer will vary