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Transcript Photosynthesis

Fungi :
- heterotrophic, without chlorophyll
- nourishment are organic substances obtained in
symbiotic or saprophytic relationships
- as a source of energy serving organic substancies;
- source of building material for body
The energy is gained from organic substances by gradual
oxidation or by controlled combustion.
Cell respiration
is biochemical process, when chemical energy is released
from bonds of organic substances (typically sacharides)
• formation of energy source for cell – ATP
• sugar oxidation of is very similar for animals and plants
• outlet products are CO2 and water
• animal, plant (at night) and bacterial cells
• dissimilation
ΔH = 1961 kJ/mol
Anaerobic conditions - glucose converts into 2 molecules of
pyruvate, the end product of anaerobic glycolysis is lactate. Profit is
2 molecules of ATP.
Enough energy for low-evolutional level organisms and probably for
progenitor organisms.
Aerobic conditions - pyruvate converts into molecules of water and
carbon dioxid, the profit is
of 36 molecules ATP.
Glucose is decomposed, molecules are oxidized and carbon dioxide
is released as an outlet product. Ions and electrons of hydrogen
released during oxidation
are transferred by coenzymes NAD+ and
FADH, which are temporarily reduced onto NADH + H+ and FADH2.
Hydrogen atoms are used as
a source of energy for synthesis
of ATP from ADP and consequently
react with oxygen to product water.
Energy for animal cells
Krebs cycle.
Pyruvate is transferred to mitochondria and then is oxidized, converts
to acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA enters Krebs cycle. During Krebs cycle are
released 2 molecules of ATP, mainly coenzymes are reduced. They
transfer hydrogen protons and electrons onto inner mitochondria
membrane. A outlet product is released carbon dioxide.
- decarboxylation, dehydrogenation
Electron transport chain
Hydrogen atoms from reduced coenzymes are transferred by electron
transport chain enzymes, (flavoproteins, coenzyme Q, cytochromes
located in inner mitochondria membrane.
Cytochromes hand on electrons and energy, which are released
during red-ox processes. There is used the place between outer and
inner mitochondria membrane for overdrawal of protons. Et the end
of electron transport chain is overdrawn proton oxidized by oxygen
into water.
Oxidative phosphorylation
Inner mitochondria membrane is impermeable for hydrogen ions.
Due to proton‘s pumps of electron chain reactions is created
electrochemical gradient.
Ions are tasked to balance concentration at both sides of membrane.
Only way for hydrogen ions to get through the membrane is
ATP-synthase enzyme, which shape intake for protons. Their energy is
used for formation of ATP.
Dissimilation in anaerobic
conditions is called
Lactic acid fermentation
It occurs in the muscles of
it is this type of bacteria that
converts lactose into lactic
acid in yogurt and others
2 ADP + 2P
acid pyruvic
acid lactic
Ethanol fermentation a form of anaerobic respiration used primarily by yeasts.
Sugars such as glucose, fructose, sucrose are converted into cellular energy
and thereby produce ethanol and carbon dioxide as metabolic waste products.
subkingdom Metazoa
Unit B
line ß
phylum Chordata
subphylum Vertebrates
suborder Anthropoidea
Homo sapiens sapiens
• Sensory organs
• Cuticle [skin] of more levels and with derivatives
• Special blood cells carry oxygen, closed circulatory system
• Pairing kidneys of mesoderm origin
• Nervous system and system of glands of internal secretions
operate all life functions
• Ability to deposite of molecules of high energy
- Land vertebrate have egg with
amniotic sac and allantois,
Agnatha and Gnathostomata from pharyngeal slits
• Mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, classes of fishes
Perfect thermoregulation - adaptation to fluctuating
Cornification of skin, hair
Epidermic glands, lactic, milk glands
Two-generation set of teeth
Two atrias, two ventriculi, left alveolar arch
Non-nucleated erythrocytes
Placenta / placental mammals and marsupials