African Civilizations: Chapter 8

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Transcript African Civilizations: Chapter 8

African Civilizations
Chapter 8
Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Sahara: Largest desert in the world. Northern Africa
Sahel: Southern edge of the Sahara desert
Savanna: Dry grassland plains
Animism: Religion based in spirits (Plants, Animals, Weather)
Djenne-Djeno: West African city on the Niger river
Migration: Moving to a new place
Bantu-Speaking Peoples: Lived in the Savanna south of the Sahara,
moved to the southern tip of Africa
Aksum: East African empire that conquered Kingdom of Kush
Diverse Societies in Africa
A Land of Geographic Contrasts
From Deserts to Rain Forests
Sahara and Kalahari deserts are largest in Africa
Rain forest is centered around Congo River Basin
From Fertile Farmlands to Grassy Plains
Mediterranean Climate is best for growing crops and raising animals
Savannas: cover 3/5ths of continent (Grasslands/little rainfall
Desertification: Process of formerly fertile land becoming desert
Early Humans Adapt to Their
Nomadic Lifestyle
Some African tribes that live din deserts or rainforests
still practice this life style
Agriculture began in African around 10,000 BC on
Savannas in the Nile River Valley
Africans Share Common
Family is the most important social unit
Clan: Group that shares common ancestors
Animism: Belief that spirits play an important role in
daily life
Griots: Storytellers that keep history alive
Early Societies in West Africa
Oldest known city in Sub-Sahara Africa (250 BC)
Center of trade on Niger River and camel Routs
The Nok Culture
First West Africans who smelt iron
Pump oxygen into fires!
Bantu Migration
Massive Migration
Migration: A permanent move from one country or region to another
Causes of Migration
Environmental: People move/flee from poor environmental conditions or
move to better areas
Economic: People move in search of better jobs/opportunities
Political: People move to avoid persecution or to achieve freedom
Types of Migration
Push Factor: Something forces people out of a region
Pull Factor: Something attracts people to a new area
Effects of Migration
Cultural Diffusion
Clashes between natives and new people
Example of Migration
Bantu Migration: A related tribe of people who migrated out of
western Africa into central and southern Africa
Brought iron-making technology and new language to central and
southern Africa
Review Questions
1. What is desertification?
2. What is animism?
3. Give one example of a cause for migration, and one example of an
4. What is the difference between push and pull factors of migration?
5. Name one specific effect of the Bantu migration.
The Kingdom of Aksum
The Rise of the Kingdom of Aksum
 Conquered the Kingdom of Kush
 Located in the country of Ethiopia (Great Horn)
Important Trading Areas
Red sea
Indian Ocean
Arabian Peninsula
 Traces history to King Solomon/Queen Sheba’s son
 Middle Man for Trade between Africa and Middle East
Traded: Salt, rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds and
**Gold + Salt**
An International Culture Develops
 Trading Center
 Mixed culture (Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Persian,
India and Byzantium)
 Aksum adopts to Christianity!
King Ezana
 Ethiopia is home to millions of devout Christians
even today!!
Ark of the Covenant?
The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion
Aksumite Innovations
The Fall of Aksum
 Terrace farming
 Lasted 800
 Minted coins
 Islamic Invaders
 Canals, cisterns
 Isolated Christians
 Surrounded by Muslims
 Moved capital to
Escape the Muslim/Islam