Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome
Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome
How to make
What is autism?
autism (HFA) and
Asperger syndrome (AS) are autism
spectrum disorders (ASDs)
They are characterised by disturbances in
social interaction, both verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive
and/or restrictive behaviour.
What is the difference?
The main difference between autism and AS
is thought to be in language development, in
that those with AS will not have had delayed
language development when younger.
In reality, it makes little difference as the triad
of impairments is present in both.
The impairments relate to social interaction,
communication and development of
Why should we be
Only a small percentage of those with ASD
will enter Higher Education.
Sharp rise in number of diagnoses of children
in the 90s – so expect this to impact very soon
Huddersfield University has 61 ASD students,
on a variety of UG and PG courses. Arts,
Humanities, Science, Nursing etc. – but mostly
in Digital Media and Gaming.
None in Law – YET!
How would I recognise ASD?
and Asperger’s children are often not
thought of as having ‘special needs’.
Significant interpersonal deficits but often
highly intelligent or gifted.
Won’t understand the ‘give and take’ of
Could be hypo- or hyper-sensitive.
HE providers we are under a legal duty
to make reasonable adjustments.
The Equality 2010 introduced a new head
of disability – discrimination arising from
Discrimination arising from
This will occur if the following three conditions are
You treat a disabled student unfavourably, that is
putting them at a substantial disadvantage, even
if this was not your intention, and
This treatment is because of something connected
with the disabled student’s disability…, and
You cannot justify the treatment by showing that is
‘a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate
Are we under a duty if we
– there is no duty if the student does
not make us aware.
Most will declare a disability on the UCAS
Disability support in the University will
follow this up and make reasonable
adjustments from the start
Student may apply for DSA
The importance of assessment
the final determiner of competence
and grading, assessment is key in
“tradition” of a language orientated
approach is no defence against the need
to make “reasonable adjustments” in the
In a proactive institution, inclusiveness should not
only be a consideration in developing a Personal
Learning Support Plan after a student reports a
The overall assessment strategy must build in
recognition of a range of skills from the very start.
This will encourage initial take-up of courses by
people with disabilities and also help improve the
representation of people from different
backgrounds, opening up education for all.
are necessary to Law degrees, but
adjustments can reduce the barrier they
represent to students with ASD.
Delivery of exams
Provision of special rooming and equipment
and extra time are common
accommodations. As a centralised process,
the impact of such allowances on
academics is kept to a minimum.
When academic staff are involved, even
more can be achieved e.g. practice
sessions and additional support in exams
targeted to the specific assessment beyond
the “general” services available.
delivery can only achieve so
much. The structure and format of the
assessment itself needs consideration.
Questions must be:
Clear on required outcomes
How to achieve this?
Questions should be:
Broken down into manageable parts with clear
allocation of marks, focussing the student's
attention. MCQs may be considered.
Clear and precise about any facts, so relevant
considerations are apparent and in a logical
Essay question require particular care, the
traditional “discuss” approach needs to first
identify a practical issue within that area of
the outcomes need to be clear.
The tutor should be available to explain
the requirements and any ambiguity
within the question.
Self-directed study is a particular
challenge for those with ASD, they need
clear direction and time-management
possibilities, responding to the
needs of a particular student rather than
being inbuilt to all coursework, could
A flexible word count.
Adaptation of the question to reflect a
particular interest of the student.
These are increasingly popular as a way of
demonstrably improving employability skills.
However, they may be particularly stressful to
a student with ASD.
Adaption should be the first option, but if the
case is serious enough then removal should
There are other ways of demonstrating
knowledge, and presentations are not an
absolutely “essential” skill in a Law degree.
is another useful employability skill, but
is again potentially stressful.
Once more, adaptation is the preferable
option but total replacement should not
be ruled out where it is in the student’s
Inclusiveness should be the starting point in
the design of any assessment, rather than an
Where a student has particular needs,
flexibility in making adjustment should extend
to the assessment itself not just the delivery of
In the end, we are testing for the knowledge
and the skills that have been learned.
is unfair to limit a student’s opportunity
to show how they have progressed to one
This is necessary to some degree for most
students as a way of allowing us to assess
on a large scale, but for disabled students
adjustments can and should be made,
and must be proactively offered.