Transcript Slide 1

Human Geography: People & Places

Chapter 4

Section 1

The Elements of Culture


• The way of life of a group of people with common traditions, interests, and beliefs.

• The total knowledge, shared attitudes, and behaviors of the members of a specific group.


• What aspects are included in your culture? • What aspects of our culture have we borrowed from others?

• What aspects have other cultures borrowed from us?

Culture Involves these Factors

• Food & shelter • Religion • Relationships to family & others • Language • Education • Security/protection • Political & social organization • Creative expression 5-N-County-Rd-Palm-Beach-FL 33480/46843354_zpid/


• Society – a group that shares a geographic region, a sense of identity, and a culture • Ethnic group – group that shares a language, customs, and a common heritage. An ethnic group has an identity as a separate group of people within the region where they live.

Cultural Change

• Cultural Diffusion – the spread of people, ideas, practices, and goods from one culture to another.

Cultural Change

• Acculturation – adapting traits from other cultures to your own (ex. wearing jeans instead of traditional garments) • Cultural contacts – travel & trade, migration

Cultural Barriers/Contacts

In the past… • Natural Barriers (deserts, mountains, rainforest, oceans) • People’s beliefs – lack of understanding leads to fear or mistrust (That is why the Chinese built the Great Wall of China)

Cultural Barriers/Contacts

Today… • Technology helps to overcome barriers (telephone, internet, television)


• Material culture - all physical, tangible objects made and used by members of a cultural group, such as clothing, building, tools, instruments, furniture, and artwork; visible aspects of culture • Nonmaterial culture – wide range of tales, songs, lore, beliefs, superstitions, and customs that passes from generation to generation as part of oral or written tradition


• One of the most important aspects of culture • Allows people within a culture to communicate with each other • Between 3,000 and 6,500 languages spoken in the world today • Dialect – reflects changes in speech patterns related to class, region, or other cultural changes (ex. Southern drawl, a Boston accent)

Hello in Major World Languages

• Chinese • English • Hindi • Russian Ni hao Hello Namasthe Zdravstvuite • Spanish • Arabic Hola Al salaam a'alaykum • Japanese Konnichiwa


• Consists of a belief in a supernatural power or powers that are regarded as creators and maintainers of the universe

3 Types of Religions

• Monotheistic - belief in one god (Christianity, Judaism, Islam) • Polytheistic – belief in many gods (Hinduism) • Animistic or traditional – often with a belief in divine forces in nature

Major World Religions

• Judaism • Christianity • Buddhism • Islam • Hinduism • Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto

Section 2

Population Geography


• The study of populations including birth rates, death rates, and migration.

World Population

World Population

• World Population

7,152,560,533 March 12, 2014 estimate

From population clock @

Scientists estimate the population will be: -8 billion by 2025

Population Pyramid

• A way to analyze population that shows the age and sex distribution of a population

Population Distribution

• The population pattern or where people live.

• The continents are not evenly populated.

• 2/3rds of the world’s people live in the zone between 20°N and 60 °N latitude • Most people live where the soil is fertile, water is available and the climate is favorable for growing crops and raising animals

Urban-Rural Mix

• More than ½ of world’s people live in rural areas • Number is changing rapidly because more people are moving into cities • 26 giant cities, called megacities, are home to total of more than 250 million people • Largest is Tokyo, Japan with over 32 million people


• Push factors – those that cause people to leave their homeland – Environmental conditions such as drought or other natural disasters – War – Persecution of certain groups of people for ethnic or religious reasons • More than 1 million Rwandans left their country for other parts of Africa because of civil war in 1994


• Pull factors – Draw or attract people to another location – Countries with good economic opportunities and high salaries are the likely destinations for migrants – Favorable climate is another pull factor

Population Density

• The average number of people living in a square mile.

• Canada –


people per square mile • United States –


people per square mile • Bangladesh –


people per square mile

Population Density

• Comparing States – Alaska - 1 person per square mile – Kentucky – 107 people per square mile – New Jersey – 1,170 people per square mile

Carrying Capacity

• Number of organisms a piece of land can support • Factors that affect carrying capacity include: – Fertile land – Level of technology

Zero Population Growth (ZPG)

• When birth and death rates are more or less equal.

• The ending of population growth when birth and death rates are equal.

• This would require an average number of 2.3 children per family.

Countries with negative natural increase or zero negative increase in population...

• Ukraine: 0.8% natural decrease annually; 28% total population decrease by 2050 Russia: -0.6%; -22% Belarus -0.6%; -12% Bulgaria -0.5%; -34% Latvia -0.5%; -23% Lithuania -0.4%; -15% Hungary -0.3%; -11% Romania -0.2%; -29% Estonia -0.2%; -23% Moldova -0.2%; -21% Croatia -0.2%; -14% Germany -0.2%; -9% Czech Republic -0.1%; -8% Japan 0%; -21% Poland 0%; -17% Slovakia 0%; -12% Austria 0%; 8% increase Italy 0%; -5% Slovenia 0%; -5% Greece 0%; -4%

Population Growth Rates

• Rapid population growth presents many challenges including: – Producing enough food to feed the growing population – Shortages of clothing and housing – Nonrenewable resources are being used up at a rapid pace – Pollution – Crime – Three billion people on the planet struggle to survive on less than $3 a day

Section 3

Political Geography

Nations of the World

• State – an independent unit that occupies a specific territory and has full control of its internal & external affairs (often the term “country” is used to mean state) • Nation – a group of people with a common culture living in a territory and having a strong sense of unity • Nation-state – when a nation and a state occupy the same territory • Stateless nations include Palestinians, Kurds, & Basques

Types of Government

• Democracy/Federal Republic – U.S.A.

• Monarchy – United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Norway • Dictatorship – North Korea, Belarus (Republic in name, actually a dictatorship) • Communism – China, Cuba, Laos, Vietnam • Theocracy – Iran, Saudi Arabia

Geographic Characteristics of Nations

• Size (physical size does not always equal wealth & power)

Geo. Characteristics Of Nations

Shape (The shape can determine how easily it can be governed, etc.) Compact – Germany, Long – Chile, Fragmented – Japan

Geographic Characteristics of Nations

• Location – What are the disadvantages of a landlocked country (ex. Bolivia)?

National Boundaries

• Natural boundaries – Rio Grande forms border between Mexico and part of United States • Artificial boundaries – 49 ° N latitude line separate U.S. and Canada

Section 4

Urban Geography

Urban Geography

• The study of how people use space in cities.

• Urban area develops around a main city called the central city.

• The built-up area around the central city may include suburbs • Smaller cities with open land between them and the central city are called exurbs • Together the city, suburbs, and exurbs form a metropolitan area

Urban Geography

• Megalopolis – formed when several metropolitan areas grow together • Ex. – Boswash – includes Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, & Washington D.C.

Land Use Patterns

Basic land use patterns found in all cities: • Residential – single-family housing & apartments • Industrial – manufacturing of goods • Commercial – used for private business and the buying and selling of retail products • The core of the city is the central business district (CBD)

Models of Urban Structure

Section 5

Economic Geography


• Consists of the production and exchange of goods and services among a group of people.

• Operate at local, regional, national, or international levels

Types of Economic Systems

• Traditional (barter) • Command (planned, communism) • Market (demand, capitalism) • Mixed (combination of command and market)

Levels of the Economic Activity

• Primary – extracts or harvest products from the Earth ex. Agriculture, mining, forestry, fishing

Levels of the Economic Activity

• Secondary – manufactures finished goods ex. Automobile production, construction, engineering, textile production

Levels of the Economic Activity

• Tertiary – service industry ex. Retail and wholesale sales, entertainment, restaurants, transportation, tourism, banking, insurance, healthcare, law

Levels of the Economic Activity

• Quaternary – intellectual activities ex.Government, culture, scientific research, education, information technology

Developed Countries

• Good educational systems • Widely available health care • Many manufacturing and service industries • Industrialization • Participates in international trade • Modern farming technology • Modern telecommunications

Developed Countries

• World’s wealthiest countries • Includes most of the countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Japan, Australia, Singapore and others

Developing Countries

• Many people live by subsistence farming • Few manufacturing and service industries • Poverty and unemployment are widespread • Limited health services • Overcrowded schools • Low literacy rate • Modern telecommunication seldom found outside of major cities • Export minerals and agricultural products to developed countries

Developing Countries

• World’s poorer countries • Includes about ¾ of the world’s people.