Autism Spectrum Disorders

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Transcript Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders
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Vocabulary
 AS is asperger syndrome
 Stereotypies are nonfunctional types of
repetitive behavior that are seen in children
with autism
 Savant means ‘knowing’ and refers to
children who have special talents
 Figurative language is nonconcrete
language
 Neophobic is fear of new and unfamiliar
people and situations
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Autism Spectrum
Pervasive Developmental Dis orders
Autism
* Savants
Re tt's
Sy ndrom e
Ch ildho od
Di sinte grati ve
Di sorde r
Pe rvasi ve
De velo pme ntal
Di sorde rs
(N ot Ot herw ise Spec ified )
As perg ers
Sy ndrom e
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Autism vs. Asperger (AS)
Autism
AS
Language delays
Normal development in the structure of
language
Can have a lower IQ/mental
retardation
IQ not affected/no cognitive delays but not as
proficient in reading comprehension or
math problems solving
Imagination and communication
impairments
No significant imagination or communication
impairments
Repetitive behaviors or stereotypies
Repetitive behaviors in the form of routines
Little awareness of social behavior
Little awareness of social behavior
Anxiety towards change
Anxiety towards change
Little understand of figurative language
Little understand of figurative language
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Asperger
Syndrome
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General Description
A neurobiological disorderat
the “high end” of the autism
spectrum--normal IQ
10% have some with savant
talents
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Prevalence
5 times more prevalent in males than females
(DSM-IV)
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Definition:
Social Characterisitcs
Diagnostic Criteria:
A. Impairment in social interaction, seen
as deficiencies in two of the following:
1. use of multiple nonverbal behavior (eye-to eye
gaze, facial expression, body postures, and
gestures to regulate social interaction)
2. appropriate peer relationships
3. spontaneous seeking to share
4. social/emotional reciprocity
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Definition:
Behavioral Characteristics
B. Restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of
behavior, interests, and activities, as
manifested by at least one of the following:
1. preoccupation with one or more restricted patterns of
interest
2. inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional
routines or rituals
3. persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
4. stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms
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Emotional Characteristics
Look at this link
http://www.cbc.ca/thelens/theboyinside/index.html
1. Lack of empathy
2. Low emotional maturity & do not
mature socially as they age (Myles)
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Social Characteristics
1. Little or no ability to form friendships
2. Naïve, inappropriate one-sided interactions
3. In high school some AS students may pass socially
as "nerds", a group they actually resemble in many
ways and which may overlap with AS.
4. The AS adolescent may form friendships with
other students who share his interests through
avenues such as computer or math clubs,
science fairs, etc.
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Physical Characteristics
1. Clumsy and ill coordinated
movements
2. Odd postures
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Communication Characteristics
No significant general delay in language (e.g.,
single words used by age 2 years,
communicative phrases used by age 3
years).
 Good structural language skills
 Poor pragmatic everyday communication.
 Monotone, repetitive speech
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Cognitive Characteristics
 Average to above average IQ.
 No significant delay in cognitive
development or in age-appropriate selfhelp skills or adaptive behavior
 High ability to commit to memory various
facts
 11.9% of AS children were gifted, with an IQ of
130 greater (Henderson)
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Summary: Verbal vs. Nonverbal
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
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

Non-Verbal
Lack of empathy
Little or no ability to form friendships;
naïve, inappropriate one-sided
interactions
Low emotional maturity & do not
mature socially as they age (Myles)
Poor non-verbal communication
Intense absorption w/ certain subjects
Clumsy and ill coordinated
movements
Odd postures (Tony Attwood)
Verbal
 Monotone,
repetitive
speech
 Good structural
language skills
 Poor pragmatic
everyday
communication.
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Academic Characteristics
Often, academic progress in the early grades is area of
relative strength; for example, rote reading and calculation
skills are usually quite good, and many children can obtain
“high levels of factual information”
Difficulties:
1. shifting attention
2. multitasking
3. planning/organizing
4. applying information and skills across settings
5. drawing inferences and applying knowledge
6. pencil skills
7. reading comprehension
8. written language and drawing tasks can cause anxiety
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Outcomes
1. More can live independently and with some
degree of economic self-sufficiency
2. Obstacle is finding the right job and work
situation
3. Do better in supportive setting
1. in rural, less complex towns better than in big
cities, where life is fast paced
2. in a family business
4. Vulnerability to a variety of psychiatric
disorders
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Accommodations
Provide a safe place so the child can retreat when s/he becomes
over stimulated or has difficulty adjusting to a new activity.
1. Establish a schedule early on, and be consistent with it.
2. Provide a visual representation of the daily schedule.
3. Write notes in advance for the child if the schedule is going to change for a
special event.
4. Provide visual cue cards to use during instruction and teaching.
5. Set clear expectations and boundaries, and post them on the wall.
6. Provide verbal and written instructions for the child.
7. Ask questions to check the child’s understanding of the instructions.
8. Use a timer to limit perseveration/ echolalia/ singing.
9. Allow the child to earn “free time” in the child’s chosen area of interest,
such as art or computers
10.Teach other children how to interact appropriately with the child with
Asperger Syndrome in both academic and social settings.
11. Be patient and ready to teach both academic and social skills over and over
again.
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Interventions
 Medications
 Functional and Behavioral Analysis
 Behavioral Treatment: Social skills training
• Model and role-play social situations incorporating appropriate
behaviors.
• Teach specific socially acceptable phrases to use in certain
situations
• Provide social skills practice and role-playing for any upcoming
social events.
• Provide a social skills notebook with stories of correct and
incorrect social behaviors that the child can use as a guide and
reference
• Provide visual cue cards of expected social behaviors, and place
them in areas where those behaviors are expected.
• Write down what behavior the child is exhibiting and what
behavior he or she should be exhibiting.
 Adapted Physical Education
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Savant Abilities
Savants are rare and have spectacular islands
of brilliance, which stand in marked contrast
to their disability
1. 10% prevalence in autism
2. 1% prevalence in those who are not autistic but
had intellectual disabilities or major mental
illness)
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Cognitive Characteristics
Generally they excel in one of
the following areas:
1. Mathematical
calculations
2. Memory feats
3. Artistic abilities
4. Musical abilities
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Kim Peek
The real
Rain Man
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Alonzo Clemons
 Alonzo is a savant.
He is known for his
sculptures.
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Alonzo can see a fleeting
image on a television screen
of any animal, and in less than
20 minutes sculpt a perfect
replica of that animal in threedimensional accuracy. The
wax animal is correct in each
and every detail -- every fiber
and muscle.
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Richard Wawro
Known world-wide, for
his detailed drawings
using wax oil crayons
as his only medium.
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